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This post is brought to you by Us Weekly’s Shop With Us team. The Shop With Us team aims to highlight products and services our readers might find interesting and useful, such as face masks, self tanners, Lululemon-style leggings and all the best gifts for everyone in your life. Product and service selection, however, is in no way intended to constitute an endorsement by either Us Weekly or of any celebrity mentioned in the post.

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June Allyson

American actress (1917–2006)

June Allyson

June Allyson-publicity.jpg

Allyson in 1944

Born

Eleanor Geisman


(1917-10-07)October 7, 1917

The Bronx, New York City, New York, U.S

DiedJuly 8, 2006(2006-07-08) (aged 88)

Ojai, California, U.S.

Resting placeForest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, California, U.S.
NationalityAmerican
Other namesJune Allison
Occupation
Years active1936–2001
Height5 ft 2 in (157 cm)
Spouse(s)

Dick Powell

(m. 1945; died 1963)​

Alfred Glenn Maxwell

(m. 1963; div. 1965)​

Alfred Glenn Maxwell

(m. 1966; div. 1970)​

David Ashrow

(m. 1976⁠–⁠2006)​
AwardsGolden Globe – Best Actress (1951)
Websitewww.juneallyson.com

June Allyson (born Eleanor Geisman; October 7, 1917 – July 8, 2006) was an American stage, film, and television actress, dancer, and singer.

Allyson began her career in 1937 as a dancer in short subject films and on Broadway in 1938. She signed with MGM in 1943, and rose to fame the following year in Two Girls and a Sailor. Allyson's "girl next door" image was solidified during the mid-1940s when she was paired with actor Van Johnson in six films. In 1951, she won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for her performance in Too Young to Kiss. From 1959 to 1961, she hosted and occasionally starred in her own anthology series, The DuPont Show with June Allyson, which aired on CBS.

In the 1970s, she returned to the stage starring in Forty Carats and No, No, Nanette. In 1982, Allyson released her autobiography June Allyson by June Allyson, and continued her career with guest starring roles on television and occasional film appearances. She later established the June Allyson Foundation for Public Awareness and Medical Research and worked to raise money for research for urological and gynecological diseases affecting senior citizens. During the 1980s, Allyson also became a spokesperson for Depend undergarments,[1] in a successful marketing campaign that has been credited in reducing the social stigma of incontinence.[2] She made her final onscreen appearance in 2001.

Allyson was married four times (to three husbands) and had two children with her first husband, Dick Powell. She died of respiratory failure and bronchitis in July 2006 at the age of 88.

Early life[edit]

Allyson was born Eleanor Geisman,[3] nicknamed Ella, in the Bronx, New York City. She was the daughter of Clara (née Provost) and Robert Geisman. She had a brother, Henry, who was two years older. She said she had been raised as a Catholic,[citation needed] but a discrepancy exists relating to her early life, and her studio biography was often the source of the confusion. Her paternal grandparents, Harry Geisman and Anna Hafner, were immigrants from Germany[3] although Allyson claimed her last name was originally "Van Geisman", and was of Dutch origin.[4] Studio biographies listed her as Jan Allyson born to French-English parents. Upon her death, her daughter said Allyson was born "Eleanor Geisman to a French mother and Dutch father."[5][N 1]

In April 1918 (when Allyson was six months old), her alcoholic father, who had worked as a janitor, abandoned the family. Allyson was brought up in near poverty, living with her maternal grandparents.[6] To make ends meet, her mother worked as a telephone operator and restaurant cashier. When she had enough funds, she occasionally reunited with her daughter, but more often Allyson was "farmed" to her grandparents or other relatives.[6]

Accident[edit]

In 1925 (when Allyson was eight), a tree branch fell on her while she was riding her tricycle with her pet terrier in tow.[7] Allyson sustained a fractured skull and broken back, and her dog was killed. Her doctors said she never would walk again and confined her to a heavy steel brace from neck to hips for four years, and she ultimately regained her health, but when Allyson had become famous, she was terrified that people would discover her background from the "tenement side of New York City", and she readily agreed to studio tales of a "rosy life", including a concocted story that she underwent months of swimming exercises in rehabilitation to emerge as a star swimmer.[6] In her later memoirs, Allyson describes a summer program of swimming that did help her recovery.[8][9]

After gradually progressing from a wheelchair to crutches to braces, Allyson's true escape from her impoverished life was to go to the cinema, where she was enraptured by Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire movies.[6] As a teen, Allyson memorized the trademark dance routines of Ginger Rogers; she claimed later to have watched The Gay Divorcee 17 times.[10] She also tried to emulate the singing styles of movie stars, but she never mastered reading music.[11]

When her mother remarried and the family was reunited with a more stable financial standing, Allyson was enrolled in the Ned Wayburn Dancing Academy and began to enter dance competitions with the stage name of Elaine Peters.[12]

Career[edit]

Early work[edit]

With the death of her stepfather and a bleak future ahead, she left high school midway her junior year to seek jobs as a dancer. Her first $60-a-week job was as a tap dancer at the Lido Club in Montreal. Returning to New York, she found work as an actress in movie short subjects filmed by Educational Pictures at its Astoria, Queens NY studio.[13]

Fiercely ambitious, Allyson tried her hand at modeling, but to her consternation became the "sad-looking before part" in a before-and-after bathing suit magazine ad.[14]

Musical shorts[edit]

Her first career break came when Educational cast her as an ingenue opposite singer Lee Sullivan, comic dancers Herman Timberg, Jr., and Pat Rooney, Jr., and future comedy star Danny Kaye in a series of shorts. These included Swing for Sale (1937), Pixilated (1937), Ups and Downs (1937), Dime a Dance (1938), Dates and Nuts (1938) and Sing for Sweetie (1938).[15]

When Educational ceased operations, Allyson moved to Vitaphone in Brooklyn and starred or co-starred (with dancer Hal Le Roy) in musical shorts. These included The Prisoner of Swing (1938), The Knight Is Young (1938), Rollin' in Rhythm (1939) and All Girl Revue (1940).

Broadway[edit]

Interspersing jobs in the chorus line at the Copacabana Club with acting roles at Vitaphone, the diminutive 5'1", below-100-pound Allyson landed a chorus job in the Broadway show Sing Out the News in 1938.[16]

The “legend” around her stage name is that the choreographer gave her a job and a new name: Allyson, a family name, and June, for the month,[7] although like many aspects of her career resume, the story is highly unlikely as she was already dubbing herself "June Allyson" prior to her Broadway engagement. At one point she attributed the name to a director she worked with even later.[N 2]

Allyson subsequently appeared in the chorus in the Jerome Kern–Oscar Hammerstein II musical Very Warm for May (1939).[13]

When Vitaphone discontinued New York production in 1940, Allyson returned to the stage to take on more chorus roles in Rodgers and Hart's Higher and Higher (1940) and Cole Porter's Panama Hattie (1940).

Her dancing and musical talent led to a stint as an understudy for the lead, Betty Hutton, and when Hutton contracted measles, Allyson appeared in five performances of Panama Hattie.[13] Broadway director George Abbott caught one of performances and offered Allyson one of the lead roles in his production of Best Foot Forward (1941).[17][15]

Early films[edit]

After her appearance in the Broadway musical, Allyson was selected for the 1943 film version of Best Foot Forward.[18] When she arrived in Hollywood, the production had not started, so MGM "placed her on the payroll" of Girl Crazy (1943). Despite playing a bit part", Allyson received good reviews as a sidekick to Best Foot Forward's star, Lucille Ball, but was still relegated to the "drop list.[19]

MGM's musical supervisor Arthur Freed saw her screen test sent up by an agent and insisted that Allyson be put on contract immediately.[20] Another musical, Thousands Cheer (1943), was a showcase for her singing, albeit still in a minor role.[21]

As a new starlet, although Allyson had already been a performer on stage and screen for over five years, she was presented as an "overnight sensation", with Hollywood press agents attempting to portray her as an ingenue, selectively slicing years off her true age. Studio bios listed her variously as being born in 1922 and 1923.[6]

Rising fame[edit]

Allyson's breakthrough was in Two Girls and a Sailor (1944) where the studio image of the "girl next door"[22] was fostered by her being cast alongside long-time acting chum Van Johnson, the quintessential "boy next door."[23] As the "sweetheart team", Johnson and Allyson were to appear together in four later films.[24][25]

Allyson supported Lucille Ball again in Meet the People (1944), which was a flop. It was on this film she met Dick Powell, whom she later married.[26]

She supported Margaret O'Brien in Music for Millions (1944) and was billed after Robert Walker and Hedy Lamarr in the romantic comedyHer Highness and the Bellboy (1945).

Stardom[edit]

Allyson was top-billed along with Walker in The Sailor Takes a Wife (1945). She had a role in Two Sisters from Boston (1946) with Kathryn Grayson and Peter Lawford, and was one of several MGM stars in Till the Clouds Roll By (1946). She also appeared in her first drama, The Secret Heart, in 1946 with Claudette Colbert and Walter Pidgeon.[25]

She was reunited with Johnson in High Barbaree (1947) and followed with the musical Good News, also in 1947.[17]

Allyson starred with Johnson in the 1948 comedy The Bride Goes Wild, then played Constance in the hugely popular 1948 The Three Musketeers (1948). Her song "Thou Swell" was a high point of the Rodgers and Hart biopic Words and Music (1948), as performed in the "A Connecticut Yankee" segment with the Blackburn Twins.[25]

Allyson played the tomboyJo March in Little Women (1949), which was a huge hit. She was adept at crying on cue, and many of her films incorporated a crying scene. Fellow MGM player Margaret O'Brien recalled that she and Allyson were known as "the town criers".[27] "I cried once in a picture and they said 'Let's do it again', and I cried for the rest of my career", she later said.[28]

The same year, MGM announced Allyson would be in Forever by Mildred Crann, but the project was dropped.[25] Instead, she starred in The Stratton Story (1949) with James Stewart, which she later said was her favorite film.[28]

She made two films with Dick Powell: The Reformer and the Redhead (1950) and Right Cross (1950), after which she was reunited with Johnson in Too Young to Kiss (1951).

In 1950, Allyson had been signed to appear opposite her childhood idol Fred Astaire in Royal Wedding, but had to leave the production due pregnancy. She was replaced initially by Judy Garland, who in turn was replaced by Jane Powell.

Allyson played a doctor in The Girl in White (1952), which lost revenue, and a nurse in Battle Circus (1953), a hit.[24] She started in Remains to Be Seen (1953) with Johnson, which was a flop. In May 1953, she and MGM agreed to part ways by mutual consent.[29]

Post MGM[edit]

In 1954, Allyson was in a huge Universal Pictures hit, The Glenn Miller Story, as well as another successful MGM film, Executive Suite. She also starred the Fox FilmWoman's World, which did less well.

Allyson was teamed with Stewart again in Strategic Air Command (1955) at Paramount, another success.[30]

She had a change of pace in The Shrike (1955) with José Ferrer at Universal; it flopped. More popular was The McConnell Story (1955) with Alan Ladd at Warner Bros..

Allyson did some musical remakes of classic films, The Opposite Sex (1956) at MGM and You Can't Run Away from It (1956) at Columbia, which was directed by Powell.[15]

In 1957, she signed with Universal and did two more remakes: Interlude, a drama for Douglas Sirk, and My Man Godfrey, a comedy with David Niven. She then made A Stranger in My Arms (1958) with Jeff Chandler. The box office failure of these films effectively ended her reign as an A-list movie star.[28]

Television[edit]

The DuPont Show with June Allyson (1959–60) ran for two seasons on CBS and was an attempt to use a high budget formula. She later called it "the hardest thing I ever did."[31] Her efforts were dismissed by an entertainment critic in the LA Examiner as "reaching down to the level of mag fiction."[32] However, TV Guide and other fan magazines such as TV Magazine considered Allyson's foray into television as revitalizing her fame and career for a younger audience, and remarked that her typecasting by the movie industry as the "girl next door" was a "waste and neglect of talent on its own doorstep."[33]

She also appeared on shows like Zane Grey Theater, The Dick Powell Theatre and Burke's Law before retiring for several years after the death of Powell in 1963.[15]

Return to acting[edit]

Allyson returned to acting with an appearance in The Name of the Game. In 1970, she briefly starred in Forty Carats on Broadway.

Throughout the 1970s, she appeared regularly on television shows such as See the Man Run (1971), The Sixth Sense (1972), and Letters from Three Lovers (1973), as well as in the film They Only Kill Their Masters (1972).[15]

Later appearances include Curse of the Black Widow (1977), Three on a Date (1978), Vega$ (1978), Blackout (1978), House Calls, The Kid with the Broken Halo (1982) Simon & Simon, The Love Boat, Hart to Hart, Murder, She Wrote, Misfits of Science, Crazy Like a Fox, and Airwolf. Her last appearance was in These Old Broads (2001).

Personal life[edit]

Marriages and children[edit]

On her arrival in Hollywood, studio heads attempted to enhance the pairing of Van Johnson and Allyson by sending out the two contracted players on a series of "official dates", which were highly publicized and led to a public perception that a romance had been kindled.[34] Although dating David Rose, Peter Lawford, and John F. Kennedy, Allyson was actually being courted by Dick Powell, who was 13 years her senior and had been previously married to Mildred Maund and Joan Blondell.[35]

On August 19, 1945, Allyson caused MGM studio chief Louis B. Mayer some consternation by marrying Dick Powell.[36] After defying him twice by refusing to stop seeing Powell, in a "tactical master stroke", she asked Mayer to give her away at the wedding.[37] He was so disarmed that he agreed but put Allyson on suspension anyway.[38]

The Powells had two children, Pamela Allyson Powell[39] (adopted in 1948 through the Tennessee Children's Home Society in an adoption arranged by Georgia Tann) and Richard Powell, Jr., born December 24, 1950.[40]

In the mid 1950s, Allyson reportedly had an affair with actor Alan Ladd.[41]

In 1961, Allyson underwent a kidney operation and later, throat surgery, temporarily affecting her trademark raspy voice.[42] She filed for divorce that year, the reason being Powell's devotion to work. In February 1961, Allyson was awarded $2.5 million in settlement, along with custody of their children,[43] in an interlocutory divorce decree. However, before the divorce was finalized they reconciled[44] and remained married until his death on January 2, 1963. Later, Allyson reflected on how the loss of Powell affected her:

I felt I had no props. I'm not really that wise to be able to live life alone and know where I'm going. I felt fear. I felt loneliness. I felt guilt and anger. I was afraid that I would not be able to stand on my own two feet. The loneliness made me feel empty. Then I had an awful guilt. I had always complained that Richard worked too hard, that he had no time for me. I gave him a bad time about this. When he left, I realized that he was working for our future and he wasn't there for me to say, "I'm sorry." I was angry because God had taken Richard away. God should have taken me. He should have left Richard, who had so much more to give.[41]

This loss prompted Allyson to start drinking heavily. In 1963, she was going to elope with Powell's barber, Glenn Maxwell, but decided against it.[45] She and Maxwell would later get married and divorced, then married and divorced again.[41]

She also went through a bitter court battle with her mother over the custody of the children. Reports at the time revealed that writer/director Dirk Summers, with whom Allyson was romantically involved from 1963 to 1975, was named legal guardian for Ricky and Pamela as a result of a court petition. Members of the nascent jet-set, Allyson and Summers were frequently seen in Cap d'Antibes, Madrid, Rome, and London. However, Summers refused to marry her and the relationship did not last.[46]

During this time, Allyson struggled with alcoholism, which she overcame in the mid-1970s.

In 1976, Allyson married David Ashrow, a dentist turned actor. The couple occasionally performed together in regional theater, and in the late 1970s and early 1980s, toured the US in the stageplayMy Daughter, Your Son. They also appeared on celebrity cruiseship tours on the Royal Viking Sky ocean liner in a program that highlighted Allyson's movie career.[47]

Philanthropy[edit]

After Dick Powell's death, Allyson committed herself to charitable work on his behalf, championing the importance of research in urological and gynecological diseases in seniors, and thus, chose to represent the Kimberly-Clark Corporation in commercials for adult incontinence products.

Following a lifelong interest in health and medical research (Allyson had initially wanted to use her acting career to fund her own training as a doctor),[21] she was instrumental in establishing the June Allyson Foundation for Public Awareness and Medical Research.

Allyson also financially supported her brother, Dr. Arthur Peters, through his medical training, and he went on to specialize in otolaryngology.[4]

Politics[edit]

Allyson was a staunch Republican and strong supporter of Richard Nixon.[48] Allyson also supported Barry Goldwater in the 1964 United States presidential election.[49]

Later years[edit]

Powell's wealth made it possible for Allyson effectively to retire from show business after his death, making only occasional appearances on talk and variety shows. Allyson returned to the Broadway stage in 1970 in the play Forty Carats[16] and later toured in a production of No, No, Nanette.

Her autobiography, June Allyson by June Allyson (1982), received generally complimentary reviews due to its insider look at Hollywood in one of its golden ages. A more critical appraisal came from Janet Maslin at the New York Times in her review, "Hollywood Leaves Its Imprint on Its Chroniclers", who noted: "Miss Allyson presents herself as the same sunny, tomboyish figure she played on screen in Hollywood... like someone who has come to inhabit the very myths she helped to create on the screen."[7] Privately, Allyson admitted that her earlier screen portrayals had left her uneasy about the typecast "good wife" roles she had played.[50]

As a personal friend of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, she was invited to many White House dinners, and in 1988, Reagan appointed her to the Federal Council on Aging. Allyson and her later husband, David Ashrow, actively supported fund-raising efforts for both the James Stewart and Judy Garland museums; both Stewart and Garland had been close friends.[7]

In 1993, actor-turned-agent Marty Ingels publicly charged Allyson with not paying his large commission on the earlier deal on incontinence product advertising. Allyson denied owing any money, and Ashrow and she filed a lawsuit for slander and emotional distress, charging that Ingels was harassing and threatening them, stating Ingels made 138 phone calls during a single eight-hour period. Earlier that year, Ingels had pleaded no contest to making annoying phone calls.[51]

In December 1993, Allyson christened the Holland America Maasdam, one of the flagships of the Holland America line. Although her heritage, like much of her personal story, was subject to different interpretations, Allyson always claimed to be proud of a Dutch ancestry.[4]

Allyson made a special appearance in 1994 in That's Entertainment III, as one of the film's narrators. She spoke about MGM's golden era and introduced vintage film clips.

In 1996, Allyson became the first recipient of the Harvey Award, presented by the James M. Stewart Museum Foundation, in recognition of her positive contributions to the world of entertainment.[52]

Until 2003, Allyson remained busy touring the country making personal appearances, headlining celebrity cruises, and speaking on behalf of Kimberly-Clark, a long-time commercial interest.[47]

The American Urogynecologic Society established the June Allyson Foundation in 1998 made possible by a grant from Kimberly-Clark. As the first celebrity to undertake the role of public spokesperson for promoting the use of the Depend undergarment, Allyson did "more than any other public figure to encourage and persuade people with incontinence to lead fuller and more active lives".[1]

Death[edit]

Following hip-replacement surgery in 2003, Allyson's health began to deteriorate. With her husband at her side, she died July 8, 2006, aged 88 at her home in Ojai, California. Her death was a result of pulmonary respiratory failure and acute bronchitis.[53] On her death, Kimberly-Clark Corporation contributed $25,000 to the June Allyson Foundation to support research advances in the care and treatment of women with urinary incontinence.[1]

Awards and honors[edit]

  • 1951: won the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture Actress-Musical/Comedy, for Too Young to Kiss.
  • 1954: awarded the Special Jury Prize for Ensemble Acting at the Venice Festival, for Executive Suite, in the same year that she was voted Most Popular Female Star by Photoplay magazine.
  • 1955: named the ninth most popular movie star in the annual Quigley Exhibitors Poll and the second most popular female star, after Grace Kelly.
  • 1960: received a motion pictures star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1537 Vine Street for her contributions to the film industry.[54]
  • 1985: received the Cannes Festival Distinguished Service Award.[47]
  • 2007: received a special tribute during the Academy Awards as part of the annual memorial tribute.

Broadway credits[edit]

I couldn't dance, and, Lord knows, I couldn't sing, but I got by somehow. Richard Rodgers was always keeping them from firing me.

June Allyson, 1951, Interview[7]

Date Production Role
September 24, 1938 – January 7, 1939 Sing Out the NewsPerformer
November 17, 1939 – January 6, 1940 Very Warm for MayJune
April 4 – June 15, 1940 Higher and HigherHigher and Higher Specialty Girl
October 30, 1940 – January 3, 1942 Panama HattieDancing Girl
October 1, 1941 – July 4, 1942 Best Foot ForwardMinerva
January 5, 1970 Forty CaratsAnn Stanley

Filmography[edit]

Box office ranking[edit]

For a number of years exhibitors voted Allyson among the most popular stars in the country:

  • 1949 – 16th (US)
  • 1950 – 14th (US)
  • 1954 – 11th (US)
  • 1955 – 9th (US)
  • 1956 – 15th (US)
  • 1957 – 23rd (US)

Radio appearances[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^During her lifetime Allyson published an autobiography that has led to much of the confusion as her recollections did not correspond to the actual record, starting with her birth date and her family background. MGM was partly to blame as the studio PR machine created a "goody two-shoes" image of a young ingenue, which required some imaginative tailoring of her age, family circumstances, and her famous "tree limb" story.
  2. ^The name "June Allyson" has been attributed to three different sources and June herself had a different memory of from where it came, but the use of a nickname and stage name had already begun in her teen years. On the Larry King interview, her recollection was that Broadway producer George Abbott had given her the name, while other sources have her first stage choreographer calling her that in exasperation, as he could not be bothered to remember her real one; at least that was the tale in her book. Probably, it made sense to her, as she liked "Allison", her brother's name, and simply tacked "June" onto it, and was reportedly using it before her Broadway debut.

Citations

  1. ^ abc"KimberlyClark Corporation Honors June Allyson And Her Humanitarian Contributions: Long-Time Depend Brand Spokesperson Educated Millions on Incontinence" (Press release). Kimberly-Clark Corporation. July 11, 2006. Retrieved May 12, 2012.
  2. ^O'Reilly, Terry (June 8, 2017). "Now Splinter Free: How Marketing Broke Taboos". CBC Radio One. Pirate Radio. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  3. ^ abAncestry.com according to the 1920 U.S. census
  4. ^ abc"June Allyson Discusses Her Career."CNN Larry King Live. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
  5. ^Luther, Claudia. "Obituaries: Film Sweetheart June Allyson Dies at 88."zap2it.com, Special to the Los Angeles Times, July 11, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  6. ^ abcdeParish and Pitts 2003, p. 1.
  7. ^ abcdeHarmetz, Aljean. "June Allyson, Adoring Wife in MGM Films, Is Dead at 88."The New York Times, July 11, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  8. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 8.
  9. ^Thomas, Bob (July 11, 2006). "June Allyson, Actress: 1917–2006". The Globe and Mail. p. S.7.
  10. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 7.
  11. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 10, 36.
  12. ^Parish and Pitts 2003, pp. 1, 3.
  13. ^ abcParish and Pitts 2003, p. 3.
  14. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 11.
  15. ^ abcdeBergan, Ronald (July 12, 2006). "Obituary: June Allyson: Actor whose sunny style and quivering lip embodied a simpler age". The Guardian. p. 36.
  16. ^ ab"June Allyson."Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
  17. ^ abBasinger 2007, p. 482.
  18. ^Hirschhorn 1991, p. 224.
  19. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 22–23.
  20. ^Fordin 1996, p. 67.
  21. ^ abAllyson, June and Frances Spatz Leighton. June Allyson by June Allyson. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1982. ISBN 0-399-12726-7
  22. ^"Milner 1998, p. 155".
  23. ^Davis 2001, p. 34.
  24. ^ abParish and Pitts 2003, p. 4.
  25. ^ abcdSchallert, Edwin (November 7, 1948). "June Allyson's Happy Dreams Coming True: Better Roles Now June Allyson's". Los Angeles Times. p. D1.
  26. ^Schallert, Edwin (September 30, 1945). "Respite Now Goal of June Allyson: Pause in Arduous Screen Work Sought by Dick Powell's Bride Respite Now Forms June Allyson Goal". Los Angeles Times. p. B1.
  27. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 37.
  28. ^ abcMeryle Secrest (August 6, 1971). "June Allyson: Still June Allyson". The Washington Post, Times Herald. p. B2.
  29. ^"June Allyson Leaves Metro". New York Times. May 2, 1953. p. 12.
  30. ^"June Allyson TV interview". The Dick Cavett Show. 1982. PBS.
  31. ^Smith, Cecil (August 21, 1960). "June Allyson: Subdeb Sex: June Allyson Runs Own Show as Star and Emcee". Los Angeles Times. p. A3.
  32. ^Becker 2009, pp. 116–117.
  33. ^Becker 2009, p. 33.
  34. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 51–53.
  35. ^Kennedy 2007, p. 130.
  36. ^Wayne 2002, p. 392.
  37. ^Eyman 2005, p. 290.
  38. ^Wayne 2006, p. 46.
  39. ^Smith, Stephen (July 16, 2007). "Actress June Allyson Dies at 88". CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
  40. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 30–31
  41. ^ abcChristy, Marian (June 20, 1982). "Conversations by Marian Christy; Woman Behind the June Myth". Boston Globe (1st ed.). p. 1.
  42. ^Parish and Pitts 2003, p. 5.
  43. ^"Divorce Granted to June Allyson from Dick Powell: June Allyson Gets a Tearful Divorce". Chicago Daily Tribune. February 1, 1961. p. A5.
  44. ^"Dick Powell, June Allyson Drop Plans for Divorce". Columbia Record (Columbia, South Carolina). January 4, 1962. p. A15.
  45. ^"With Dick Powell's Barber: June Allyson Lawyer Bars Her Elopement". Los Angeles Times. August 4, 1963. p. f1.
  46. ^Carroll, Harrison. "June Allyson & Dirk Summers Marriage." Herald Examiner, Vol. XCV, Issue 223, November 4, 1965, p. 1.
  47. ^ abc"Biography: June Allyson." juneallyson.com. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  48. ^Doyle, Jack (March 11, 2009). "1968 Presidential Racd: Republicans". PopHistoryDig.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  49. ^Critchlow, Donald T. (2013). When Hollywood Was Right: How Movie Stars, Studio Moguls, and Big Business Remade American Politics. ISBN .
  50. ^Weil, Martin. "Perky Actress June Allyson, 88."The Washington Post, July 11, 2006, p. B06. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  51. ^"Allyson Lawsuit Accuses Marty Ingels of Slander". Deseret News. August 30, 1993. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
  52. ^"The Jimmy Stewart Museum."Archived March 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine jimmy.org.
  53. ^Mormon 2007, p. 65.
  54. ^"Walk of Fame Stars: June Allyson". walkoffame.com. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. February 8, 1960. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  55. ^Kirby, Walter (February 24, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 38. Retrieved May 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.open access
  56. ^Kirby, Walter (May 17, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.open access

Bibliography

  • Allyson, June. June Allyson's Feeling Great: A Daily Dozen Exercises for Creative Aging. New York: Da Capo Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-88496-257-1.
  • Basinger, Jeanine. The Star Machine. New York: Knopf, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4000-4130-5.
  • Becker, Christine. It's the Pictures That Got Small: Hollywood Film Stars on 1950s Television (Wesleyan Film). Indianapolis, Indiana: Wesleyan, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8195-6894-6.
  • Davis, Ronald L. Van Johnson: MGM's Golden Boy (Hollywood Legends Series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2001. ISBN 978-1-57806-377-2.
  • Eyman, Scott. Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Meyer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7432-0481-1.
  • Fordin, Hugh. M-G-M's Greatest Musicals. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-306-80730-5.
  • Hirschhorn, Clive. The Hollywood Musical. London: Pyramid Books, 1991, first edition 1981. ISBN 978-1-85510-080-0.
  • Kennedy, Matthew. Joan Blondell: A Life between Takes (Hollywood Legends Series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2007. ISBN 978-1-57806-961-3.
  • Milner, Jay Dunston. Confessions of a Maddog: A Romp through the High-flying Texas Music and Literary Era of the Fifties to the Seventies. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1998. ISBN 978-1-57441-050-1.
  • Mormon, Robert. Demises of the Distinguished. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4343-1546-5.
  • Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who Act and Actors who can Sing. London: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 978-0-415-94332-1.
  • Wayne, Jane Ellen. The Golden Girls of MGM: Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Lana Turner, Judy Garland, Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly and Others. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7867-1117-8.
  • Wayne, Jane Ellen. The Leading Men of MGM. New York: Da Capo Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7867-1768-2.

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Allyson

François Truffaut

French film director

"Truffaut" redirects here. For other people with that surname, see Truffaut (surname).

François Truffaut

François Truffaut (1965).jpg

Truffaut in 1965

Born

François Roland Truffaut


(1932-02-06)6 February 1932

Paris, France

Died21 October 1984(1984-10-21) (aged 52)

Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

Resting placeMontmartre Cemetery
Occupation
  • Director
  • screenwriter
  • producer
  • actor
  • film critic
Years active1955–1984
MovementFrench New Wave
Spouse(s)

Madeleine Morgenstern

(m. 1957; div. 1965)​
Partner(s)Fanny Ardant (1981–1984; his death)
Children3

François Roland Truffaut (TROO-foh, TRUUF-oh,[1][2]troo-FOH;[2][3][4]French: [fʁɑ̃swa ʁɔlɑ̃ tʁyfo]; 6 February 1932 – 21 October 1984) was a French film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film critic. He is widely regarded as one of the founders of the French New Wave.[5] In a career lasting over a quarter of a century, he remains an icon of the French film industry, having worked on over 25 films.

Truffaut's film The 400 Blows is a defining film of the French New Wave movement, and has four sequels, Antoine et Colette, Stolen Kisses, Bed and Board, and Love on the Run, made between 1958 and 1979. Truffaut's 1973 film Day for Night earned him critical acclaim and several accolades, including the BAFTA Award for Best Film and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

His other notable films include Shoot the Piano Player (1960), Jules and Jim (1962), The Soft Skin (1964), The Wild Child (1970), Two English Girls (1971), The Last Metro (1980), and The Woman Next Door (1981). He is also known for his supporting role in the film Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977).

Truffaut also wrote the notable book Hitchcock/Truffaut (1966), which detailed his interviews with film director Alfred Hitchcock during the 1960s.

Early life[edit]

Truffaut was born in Paris on 6 February 1932. His mother was Janine de Montferrand. His mother's future husband, Roland Truffaut, accepted him as an adopted son and gave him his surname. He was passed around to live with various nannies and his grandmother for a number of years. His grandmother instilled in him her love of books and music. He lived with her until her death, when Truffaut was eight years old. It was only after her death that he lived with his parents.[6] The identity of Truffaut's biological father is unknown, but a private detective agency in 1968 revealed that its inquiry into the matter led to a Roland Levy, a Jewish dentist from Bayonne. Truffaut's mother's family disputed the finding but Truffaut believed and embraced it.[7]

Truffaut often stayed with friends and tried to be out of the house as much as possible. He knew Robert Lachenay from childhood, and they were lifelong best friends. Lachenay was the inspiration for the character René Bigey in The 400 Blows and worked as an assistant on some of Truffaut's films. Cinema offered Truffaut the greatest escape from an unsatisfying home life. He was eight years old when he saw his first movie, Abel Gance's Paradis Perdu (Paradise Lost, 1939), beginning his obsession. He frequently skipped school and sneaked into theaters because he lacked the money for admission. After being expelled from several schools, at age 14 he decided to become self-taught. Two of his academic goals were to watch three movies a day and read three books a week.[6][8]

Truffaut frequented Henri Langlois's Cinémathèque Française, where he was exposed to countless foreign films, becoming familiar with American cinema and directors such as John Ford, Howard Hawks and Nicholas Ray, as well as those of British director Alfred Hitchcock.[9]

Career[edit]

André Bazin[edit]

After starting his own film club in 1948, Truffaut met André Bazin, who had a great effect on his professional and personal life. Bazin was a critic and the head of another film society at the time. He became a personal friend of Truffaut's and helped him out of various financial and criminal situations during his formative years.[10]

Truffaut joined the French Army in 1950, aged 18, but spent the next two years trying to escape. He was arrested for attempting to desert the army and incarcerated in military prison. Bazin used his political contacts to get Truffaut released and set him up with a job at his new film magazine, Cahiers du cinéma.

Cahiers du Cinema[edit]

Over the next few years, Truffaut became a critic (and later editor) at Cahiers, where he became notorious for his brutal, unforgiving reviews. He was called "The Gravedigger of French Cinema"[11] and was the only French critic not invited to the 1958 Cannes Film Festival. He supported Bazin in developing one of the most influential theories of cinema, the auteur theory.[12]

In 1954, Truffaut wrote an article in Cahiers du cinéma, "Une Certaine Tendance du Cinéma Français" ("A Certain Trend of French Cinema"),[8] in which he attacked the state of French films, lambasting certain screenwriters and producers, and listing eight directors he considered incapable of devising the kinds of "vile" and "grotesque" characters and storylines he called characteristic of the mainstream French film industry: Jean Renoir, Robert Bresson, Jean Cocteau, Jacques Becker, Abel Gance, Max Ophuls, Jacques Tati and Roger Leenhardt. The article caused a storm of controversy, and landed Truffaut an offer to write for the nationally circulated, more widely read cultural weekly Arts-Lettres-Spectacles. Truffaut wrote more than 500 film articles for that publication over the next four years.

Truffaut later devised the auteur theory, according to which the director was the "author" of his work and great directors such as Renoir or Hitchcock have distinct styles and themes that permeate their films. Although his theory was not widely accepted then, it gained some support in the 1960s from American critic Andrew Sarris. In 1967, Truffaut published his book-length interview of Hitchcock, Hitchcock/Truffaut (New York: Simon and Schuster).

Short films[edit]

After having been a critic, Truffaut decided to make films. He began with the short film Une Visite (1955) and followed it with Les Mistons (1957).

The 400 Blows[edit]

After seeing Orson Welles's Touch of Evil at the Expo 58, Truffaut made his feature film directorial debut with The 400 Blows (1959), which received considerable critical and commercial acclaim. He won the Best Director award at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival. The film follows the character of Antoine Doinel through his perilous misadventures in school, an unhappy home life and later reform school. The film is highly autobiographical. Both Truffaut and Doinel were only children of loveless marriages; they both committed petty crimes of theft and truancy from the military. Truffaut cast Jean-Pierre Léaud as Doinel. Léaud was seen as an ordinary boy of 14 who auditioned for the role after seeing a flyer, but interviews after the film's release (one is included on the Criterion DVD of the film) reveal Léaud's natural sophistication and an instinctive understanding of acting for the camera. Léaud and Truffaut collaborated on several films over the years. Their most noteworthy collaboration was the continuation of Doinel's story in a series of films called "The Antoine Doinel Cycle".

The primary focus of The 400 Blows is Doinel's life. The film follows him through his troubled adolescence. He is caught in between an unstable parental relationship and an isolated youth. From birth Truffaut was thrown into a troublesome situation. As he was born out of wedlock, his birth had to remain a secret because of the stigma of illegitimacy. He was registered as "a child born to an unknown father" in hospital records and looked after by a nurse for an extended period of time. His mother eventually married and her husband gave François his surname, Truffaut.

Although he was legally accepted as a legitimate child, his parents did not accept him. The Truffauts had another child, who died shortly after birth. This experience saddened them greatly and as a result they despised François because of the regret he represented (Knopf 4[specify]). He was an outcast from his earliest years, dismissed as an unwanted child. François was sent to live with his grandparents. When his grandmother died, his parents took him in, much to his mother's dismay. His experiences with his mother were harsh. He recalled being treated badly by her but found comfort in his father's laughter and spirit. François had a very depressing childhood after moving in with his parents. They left him alone when they took vacations. He even recalled being alone during Christmas. Being left alone forced François into independence, often doing various tasks around the house to improve it, such as painting or changing the electric outlets. Sadly, these kind gestures often resulted in catastrophic events, causing him to get scolded by his mother. His father mostly laughed them off.

The 400 Blows marked the beginning of the French New Wave movement, which gave directors such as Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol and Jacques Rivette a wider audience. The New Wave dealt with a self-conscious rejection of traditional cinema structure. This was a topic on which Truffaut had been writing for years.

Shoot the Piano Player[edit]

Following the success of The 400 Blows, Truffaut featured disjunctive editing and seemingly random voiceovers in his next film, Shoot the Piano Player (1960), starring Charles Aznavour. Truffaut has said that in the middle of filming, he realized that he hated gangsters. But since gangsters were a main part of the story, he toned up the comical aspect of the characters and made the movie more to his liking.

Even though Shoot the Piano Player was much appreciated by critics, it performed poorly at the box office. While the film focused on two of the French New Wave's favorite elements, American film noir and themselves, Truffaut never again experimented as heavily.

Jules and Jim and The Soft Skin[edit]

In 1962, Truffaut directed his third movie, Jules and Jim, a romantic drama starring Jeanne Moreau. The film was very popular and highly influential.

In 1963, Truffaut was approached to direct the American film Bonnie and Clyde, with a treatment written by Esquire journalists David Newman and Robert Benton intended to introduce the French New Wave to Hollywood. Although he was interested enough to help in script development, Truffaut ultimately declined, but not before interesting Jean-Luc Godard and American actor and would-be producer Warren Beatty, who proceeded with the film with director Arthur Penn.

The fourth movie Truffaut directed was The Soft Skin (1964). It was not acclaimed on its release.

Fahrenheit 451[edit]

Truffaut's first non-French film was a 1966 adaptation of Ray Bradbury's classic science fiction novel Fahrenheit 451, showcasing Truffaut's love of books. His only English-speaking film, made on location in England, was a great challenge for Truffaut, because he barely spoke English himself. Shot by cinematographer Nicolas Roeg, this was Truffaut's first film in colour. The larger-scale production was difficult for Truffaut, who had worked only with small crews and budgets. The shoot was also strained by a conflict with lead actor Oscar Werner, who was unhappy with his character and stormed off set, leaving Truffaut to shoot scenes using a body double shot from behind. The film was a commercial failure, and Truffaut never worked outside France again. The film's cult standing has steadily grown, although some critics remain dubious of it as an adaptation.[13] A 2014 consideration of the film by Charles Silver praises it.[14]

Thrillers and Stolen Kisses[edit]

Truffaut worked on projects with varied subjects. The Bride Wore Black (1968), a brutal tale of revenge, is a stylish homage to the films of Alfred Hitchcock (once again starring Moreau).

Stolen Kisses (1968) was a continuation of the Antoine Doinel Cycle starring Claude Jade as Antoine's fiancée and later wife Christine Darbon. During its filming Truffaut fell in love with Jade and was briefly engaged to her. It was a big hit on the international art circuit. A short time later Jade made her Hollywood debut in Hitchcock's Topaz.[15]

Mississippi Mermaid (1969), with Catherine Deneuve and Jean-Paul Belmondo, is an identity-bending romantic thriller.

The Wild Child (1970) included Truffaut's acting debut in the lead role of 18th-century physician Jean Marc Gaspard Itard.

Doinel marries Christine[edit]

Bed and Board (1970) was another Antoine Doinel film, also with Jade, now Léaud's on-screen-wife.

Two English Girls (1971) is the female reflection of the same love story as "Jules et Jim". It is based on a story by Henri-Pierre Roché, who wrote Jules and Jim, about a man who falls equally in love with two sisters, and their love affair over a period of years.

Such a Gorgeous Kid Like Me (1972) was a screwball comedy that was not well received.

Day for Night[edit]

Day for Night won Truffaut a Best Foreign Film Oscar.[16] The film is probably his most reflective work. It is the story of a film crew trying to finish a film while dealing with the personal and professional problems that accompany making a movie. Truffaut plays the director of the fictional film being made. This film features scenes from his previous films. It is considered his best film since his earliest work. Time Magazine placed it on its list of 100 Best Films of the Century (along with The 400 Blows).

In 1975, Truffaut gained more notoriety with The Story of Adèle H.; Isabelle Adjani in the title role earned a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actress. His 1976 film Small Change was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

The late 70s and the last Doinel[edit]

The Man Who Loved Women (1977), a romantic drama, was a minor hit.

Truffaut also appeared in Steven Spielberg's 1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind as scientist Claude Lacombe.[17]

The Green Room (1978) starred Truffaut in the lead. It was a box-office flop, so he made Love on the Run (1979) starring Léaud and Jade as the final movie of the Doinel Cycle.

The Last Metro[edit]

One of Truffaut's final films gave him an international revival. The Last Metro (1980) garnered 12 César Award nominations and 10 wins, including Best Director.

Final films[edit]

Truffaut's last film was shot in black and white, giving his career a sense of having bookends. Confidentially Yours is Truffaut's tribute to his favorite director, Hitchcock. It deals with numerous Hitchcockian themes, such as private guilt versus public innocence, a woman investigating a murder, and anonymous locations.

A keen reader, Truffaut adapted many literary works, including two novels by Henri-Pierre Roché, Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, Henry James's "The Altar of the Dead", filmed as The Green Room, and several American detective novels.

Truffaut's other films were from original screenplays, often co-written by the screenwriters Suzanne Schiffman or Jean Gruault. They featured diverse subjects, the sombre The Story of Adèle H. inspired by the life of the daughter of Victor Hugo, with Isabelle Adjani; Day for Night, shot at the Victorine Studios, depicting the ups and downs of filmmaking; and The Last Metro, set during the German occupation of France during World War II, a film rewarded by ten César Awards.

Known as a lifelong cinephile, Truffaut once (according to the 1993 documentary film François Truffaut: Stolen Portraits) threw a hitchhiker out of his car after learning that he didn't like films.

Many filmmakers admire Truffaut, and tributes to his work have appeared in films such as Almost Famous, Face and The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, as well as novelist Haruki Murakami's Kafka on the Shore.

Attitude towards other filmmakers[edit]

Truffaut expressed his admiration for filmmakers such as Luis Buñuel, Ingmar Bergman, Robert Bresson, Roberto Rossellini, and Alfred Hitchcock. Truffaut wrote Hitchcock/Truffaut, a book about Hitchcock, based on a lengthy series of interviews.[18]

Of Jean Renoir, he said: "I think Renoir is the only filmmaker who's practically infallible, who has never made a mistake on film. And I think if he never made mistakes, it's because he always found solutions based on simplicity—human solutions. He's one film director who never pretended. He never tried to have a style, and if you know his work—which is very comprehensive, since he dealt with all sorts of subjects—when you get stuck, especially as a young filmmaker, you can think of how Renoir would have handled the situation, and you generally find a solution".[19]

Truffaut called German filmmaker Werner Herzog "the most important film director alive."[20]

Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard, his colleague from Les Cahiers du Cinéma, worked together closely during their start as film directors although they had different working methods. Tensions came to the surface after May 68: Godard wanted a more political, specifically Marxist cinema, Truffaut was critical of creating films for primarily political purposes.[21] In 1973, Godard accused Truffaut of making a movie that was a "lie" (Day For Night), and Truffaut replied with a 20-page letter in which he accused Godard of being a radical-chic hypocrite, a man who believed everyone to be "equal" in theory only. "The Ursula Andress of militancy—like Brando—a piece of shit on a pedestal." Godard tried to reconcile with Truffaut later on, but they never spoke to or saw each other again.[22] After Truffaut's death, Godard wrote the introduction to a collection of his letters and a long tribute in his film Histoire(s) du cinéma.[23]

Personal life[edit]

Truffaut was married to Madeleine Morgenstern from 1957 to 1965, and they had two daughters, Laura (born 1959) and Eva (born 1961). Madeleine was the daughter of Ignace Morgenstern, managing director of one of France's largest film distribution companies, Cocinor, and was largely responsible for securing funding for Truffaut's first films.

In 1968 Truffaut was engaged to actress Claude Jade (Stolen Kisses, Bed and Board, Love on the Run); he and Fanny Ardant (The Woman Next Door, Confidentially Yours) lived together from 1981 to 1984 and had a daughter, Joséphine Truffaut (born 28 September 1983).[6][24]

Truffaut was an atheist, but had great respect for the Catholic Church and requested a Requiem Mass for his funeral.[25][26]

Death[edit]

In July 1983, Truffaut rented France Gall's and Michel Berger's house outside Honfleur, Normandy (composing for Philippe Labro's film Rive droite, rive gauche) when he had his first stroke and was diagnosed with a brain tumor.[27] He was expected to attend his friend Miloš Forman's Amadeus premiere[28] when he died on 21 October 1984, aged 52, at the American Hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine in France.[29]

At the time of his death, he had numerous films in preparation. He had intended to make 30 films and then retire to write books for the remainder of his life. He was five films short of that aim. He is buried in Montmartre Cemetery.[30]

Filmography[edit]

Director[edit]

Feature films[edit]

Shorts films and collaborations[edit]

Screenwriter only[edit]

Actor[edit]

Producer only[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Les 400 Coups (1960) with M. Moussy (English translation: The 400 Blows)
  • Le Cinéma selon Alfred Hitchcock (1967, second edition 1983) (English translation: Hitchcock and Hitchcock/Truffaut with the collaboration of Helen G. Scott)
  • Les Aventures d'Antoine Doinel (1970) (English translation: Adventures of Antoine Doinel; translated by Helen G. Scott)
  • Jules et Jim (film script) (1971) (English translation: Jules and Jim; translated by Nicholas Fry)
  • La Nuit américaine et le Journal de Fahrenheit 451 (1974)
  • Le Plaisir des yeux (1975)
  • L'Argent de poche (1976) (English title: Small change: a film novel; translated by Anselm Hollo)
  • L'Homme qui aimait les femmes (1977)
  • Les Films de ma vie (1981) (English translation: Films in my life; translated by Leonard Mayhew)
  • Correspondance (1988) (English translation: Correspondence, 1945–1984; translated by Gilbert Adair, released posthumously)
  • Le Cinéma selon François Truffaut (1988) edited by Anne Gillain (released posthumously)
  • Belle époque (1996) with Jean Gruault (released posthumously)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Truffaut, François". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  2. ^ ab"Truffaut, François". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  3. ^"Truffaut". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  4. ^"Truffaut". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  5. ^Obituary Variety, 24 October 1984.
  6. ^ abc"FRANCOIS TRUFFAUT – French New Wave Director". Newwavefilm.com. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  7. ^Robert Ingram; Paul Duncan (2004). François Truffaut: Film Author, 1932-1983. Taschen. p. 94. ISBN .
  8. ^ ab"François Truffaut – Movie and Film Biography and Filmography". Allmovie.com. 21 October 1984. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  9. ^"'Francois Truffaut' at the Cinematheque Francaise: Exhibition Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  10. ^Truffaut, François (1989). Correspondence, 1945–1984. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 17, 50, 57.
  11. ^SUKHDEV SANDHU (2 April 2009). "Film as an act of love". New Statesman.
  12. ^The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (20 July 1998). "Auteur theory FILMMAKING". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  13. ^John Brosnan and Peter Nicholls, Fahrenheit 451, Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  14. ^Charles Silver, Francois Truffaut’s Fahrenheit 451, Inside Out, MoMA. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  15. ^Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, University of Wisconsin Press, 1987 p. 282
  16. ^ abc"The 47th Academy Awards (1975) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  17. ^Aurélien Ferenczi (26 October 2014). "Qu'allait-donc faire Truffaut chez Spielberg ?". Télérama.
  18. ^François Truffaut. "Hitchcock". Goodreads. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  19. ^On Jean Renoir TRUFFAUT’S LAST INTERVIEW
  20. ^Cronin, Paul; Werner Herzog (2002). Herzog on Herzog. London: Faber and Faber. pp. vii–viii. ISBN .
  21. ^"Subscribe to read | Financial Times". www.ft.com.
  22. ^Gleiberman, Owen. "Godard and Truffaut: Their spiky, complex friendship is its own great story in 'Two in the Wave".
  23. ^de Baecque, Antione; Toubiana, Serge (2000). Truffaut: A Biography. University of California Press. ISBN .
  24. ^Eric Pace (22 October 1984). "Francois Truffaut, New Wave Director, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  25. ^Eric Michael Mazur (2011). Encyclopedia of Religion and Film. ABC-CLIO. p. 438. ISBN .
  26. ^David Sterritt (1999). The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN .
  27. ^Antoine de Baecque and Serge Toubiana's Biography of François Truffaut
  28. ^"Truffaut : un classique (1970-80)". francetv.fr. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  29. ^"Francois Truffaut, New Wave Director, Dies". The New York Times. 22 October 1984. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  30. ^"Journées du patrimoine 2011 Paris 18ème, le programme". Le Figaro. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  31. ^"The 32nd Academy Awards (1960) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  32. ^"The 41st Academy Awards (1969) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  33. ^"IMDB.com: Awards for Small Change". imdb.com. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  34. ^"IMDB.com: Awards for The Man Who Loved Women". imdb.com. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  35. ^"IMDB.com: Awards for Love on the Run". imdb.com. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  36. ^"The 53rd Academy Awards (1981) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  37. ^"François Truffaut, l'exposition". Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.

External links[edit]

Awards for François Truffaut

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Truffaut

Merlin jangled his keys in his hand and looked at Arthur with a sleepy smile, the intoxication fading slowly as the night grew late.

“Well, I should probably be heading home, it’s getting quite late,” he said, turning toward the door.

Arthur snatched the keys out of his hands. “You’re not driving anywhere in your state, young man. You’re still drunk.”

“Who are you, my mother?” Merlin scoffed. “I’ll just walk then, it’s not too far. I’ll be back tomorrow to pick up my car.”

“Nope. You’re not walking a mile in the snow. You’d probably catch frostbite and your scrawny legs might fall off.”

“I don’t think frostbite is something you can catch, it’s not a virus. Plus, it takes hours to set in, and it would have to be much colder than this.”

“It’s settled, Merlin. You’re staying here.”

“Here? Have you lost it? I want to sleep tonight, Arthur.”

“And you will. Just not in your dorm room.”

“And where, pray tell, do you suggest I sleep?”

“Here. You’re sleeping here, I thought I made that obvious.”

“I’m not sleeping on your floor, it’s much too dirty and I don’t fancy an achy back.”

“Then you’ll sleep in my bed.”

Merlin’s eyes nearly popped out of his head. “And where will you sleep?”

“...In my bed? Where else would I sleep?”

“Arthur, we’re two grown men. Surely we can’t both fit in your twin bed.”

“Well, I’m grown. You appear to have stopped growing somewhere around 15.”

Merlin punched him in the arm. “I’m grown! We’re the same height!”

“And yet somehow I’m twice your size.”

“Prat. I’m going home.” Arthur grabbed his shoulders, effectively keeping Merlin in place and forcing him to make eye contact.

“Don’t be an idiot. It’ll be fine.”

That was apparently all the convincing Merlin needed, so Arthur walked over to his dresser and dug out two pairs of basketball shorts. He tossed one to Merlin, who turned his back to Arthur and changed out of his jeans. Once they were both in more comfortable clothes, they turned to face each other.

“You’re sleeping on the wall side,” Arthur said.

“Why me? What if I need to pee in the middle of the night?”

“I’m sure you’ll figure it out.”

Merlin grumbled, but climbed under the covers and scooted so that his shoulder was pressing against the wall. Arthur got in after him, making a concerted effort to situate himself so that he wasn’t touching Merlin, but given that the bed was very clearly designed for one inhabitant, he was not succeeding. When they finally got settled, Arthur and Merlin were laying flat on their backs, their sides pressed together, and Arthur’s left shoulder was hanging off the edge of the bed.

“I don’t think I can sleep like this,” Arthur said.

“What did I tell you? This was a ridiculous idea.”

“Merlin, I hate to admit it but–”

“I was right? You’ll let me go back to my own room?”

“No, I’d sooner sleep on my own floor than let you out in this weather. I was going to say that I think we might have to lay on our sides.”

“Oh, alright. Why did you make that seem like such a bad thing?”

“Because it means we’ll be spooning, Merlin.”

Understanding dawned on Merlin and he nodded. “Yes, I can see now why that might be an issue.”

“Well let’s not take all night, I do want to get to sleep sometime tonight.”

“Alright, hold your horses,” Merlin muttered as he turned on his side to face Arthur.

“What do you think you’re doing?” Arthur asked.

“Turning on my side? Didn’t we just discuss this?”

“You’re out of your mind if you think you’re going to be the big spoon.”

“Well Arthur, I don’t fancy sleeping with my face two inches from the wall.”

“I’m sorry about that, but you’ll just have to manage,” Arthur turned on his side so that the pair were facing one another.

“Okay, this is obviously not going to work. We’re taking up more space than we did before.”

“I’m not being the little spoon.”

“Do you want to fall off the bed?”

“What makes you think I’m going to fall off the bed?”

“Your bum is hanging off the edge.”

“Barely.”

“Stop being a baby and face the other way.”

Arthur huffed, but he rolled over so that his back was to Merlin.

“Thank you, Arthur, I appreciate the grave sacrifice you’ve made for me.”

“Shut up.”

Arthur awoke the next morning with Merlin’s arm around his waist and his warm body pressed up against him. Deciding he probably ought to free himself from his friend’s embrace, he rolled to face him and placed his hand on the empty spot of mattress between them.

“Merlin,” Arthur whispered. No response. “Merlin,” he said again, louder this time.

“Mm?” Merlin responded, annoyed and still half asleep.

“Your breath smells like feet.”

“Why thank you,” he mumbled, eyes still closed, “it’s probably because you forced me to sleep here instead of in my own room, where I keep my toothbrush.”

“Well I apologize for not letting you show up on the news as one of those drunk drivers who kills someone because he was being reckless.”

“I could’ve walked.”

“You would’ve gotten frostbite.”

“We’ve been over this, a twenty minute walk isn’t enough time to get frostbite.” Merlin finally opened his eyes. “And it’s not like you brushed your teeth either, you were too busy making me wear your shorts and worrying about being the little spoon.”

“I didn’t make you wear my shorts, I graciously offered you something to wear that wasn’t jeans. Forgive me for being kind.”

“A kind person would have let me go home.”

Arthur rolled his eyes and climbed out of bed. “I’m going to take a shower. Your keys are on the desk. Text me later if you want to hang out.”

“Wow, I don’t even get to hang around and wait for you to come back all fresh and clean? I’m not some shameful one night stand, Arthur.” Merlin watched his face go pink at that statement.

“Of course not, you idiot, I just thought you’d want some privacy to change back into your jeans.”

“Oh, so we can sleep together, but we can’t change in front of each other?”

“We didn’t– Merlin, you’d better not go around telling people we slept together, you know that’s not what happened.” This time it was Merlin’s turn to blush.

“Obviously I wouldn’t tell people that, you prat. I’m just pulling your leg, calm down.”

“Oh. Right. So, text me later?”

“Yep, will do.”

With that, Arthur grabbed his towel and his shower caddy and headed down the hall to the bathroom, leaving Merlin to change and be on his way.

––––

A year later, Arthur had upgraded to an off-campus apartment, while Merlin was still stuck in his matchbox of a dorm room.

“I don’t see how it’s fair that you get this big fancy apartment and I just have a room with a bed and a desk.”

“It’s not my fault, my father insisted I learn to live on my own!”

“Can your father insist that I learn to live with you?” Merlin said, mostly joking. He’d been drinking again; Arthur had hosted a small get-together earlier that night to celebrate the big move, but everyone else had since gone home and left the two of them to drink the leftovers.

“Don’t be stupid, Merlin, there’s only one bedroom.”

“I’m not stupid, you’re stupid.”

“Alright, now you’re just acting childish.”

“You’re acting Irish.”

“Oh dear, you’re drunker than I thought you were. Let’s get you to bed.” Arthur grabbed Merlin’s arm and pulled him up from his seat on the couch.

“But I’m not tired!”

“Well that’s too bad, isn’t it?” Arthur said, matching his petulant tone.

Merlin grumbled, but he let himself be led into Arthur’s bedroom.

“Oh, not this again. I thought you were going to drive me home!”

“Merlin, I’ve been drinking too, I’m obviously not going to get behind the wheel of a car.”

“Why do you keep trying to get me to sleep with you? Just because I’m gay doesn’t mean I’m into you.”

Arthur paused. “You’re gay?”

“Oh, I– did I not tell you?” Merlin stammered, eyes widening. “Surely I must have told you.”

“You didn’t,” Arthur said, turning toward his dresser. He dug through his drawers and passed Merlin the same pair of shorts he’d lent him last time.

“Thanks,” Merlin mumbled as Arthur left the room to let him change. He wondered if Arthur knew they were the same pair.

A minute later, Merlin emerged, dressed in his pajamas for the night. Arthur was brushing his teeth at the bathroom sink. When their eyes met in the mirror, Arthur waved him in.

“Here,” he said, toothpaste dripping out of his mouth in a way that should not have made Merlin’s stomach flutter the way it did. It took him a moment to notice that Arthur was handing him a brand new toothbrush.

“Oh. Thanks,” Merlin said, grabbing the toothbrush and tearing open the packaging. Arthur held out his open tube of toothpaste, squeezing it onto Merlin’s new toothbrush.

“I don’t want to wake up to your foul breath again,” he said, closing the tube.

“Right. Of course,” Merlin said, trying not to think about Arthur out doing errands, picking out a new toothbrush for him on the off chance that he might be too drunk to drive home at some point in the future.

Five minutes later, the pair had tucked themselves into Arthur’s new queen-sized bed.

“Well, this is certainly preferable to the last time,” Merlin mumbled.

“Certainly,” Arthur replied.

A few minutes passed in relatively comfortable silence. Merlin had laid down on his side so that he was facing Arthur, almost drifting off.

“Merlin, I–” Arthur paused, unsure. “I wanted to tell you…”

Merlin smiled. “You can tell me anything, Arthur.”

“I just wanted to thank you for being so honest with me. I don’t ever want you to think I would judge you for who you are or who you love, and I’m sorry if I ever made you feel like I would.”

Merlin’s heart swelled. “I know that Arthur. I’m so grateful for your support, even if you can be an egghead sometimes.”

“Then why didn’t you tell me you were gay sooner?”

“Honestly, I thought you already knew. It’s not like I’ve ever tried to hide it.”

“Well I didn’t know. But I’m glad I do now.”

“I’m glad too,” Merlin smiled.

Arthur smiled back at him. “Good talk. Now let’s get some sleep.”

––––

A month later, Merlin and Arthur found themselves sitting on the couch together, trying desperately to keep their eyes open to watch the end of a very long movie. When the credits finally rolled, Merlin let himself close his eyes for a quick nap before heading home.

“Get up, Merlin. It’s bedtime.”

“No, don’t kick me out just yet. I need to rest before I drive home.”

“Don’t be ridiculous, you’re staying here tonight.”

Merlin looked up at Arthur, who was already standing in the hallway. “But I haven’t had a drop of alcohol.”

“Drowsy driving is just as dangerous as drunk driving.”

“Christ, you sound like my mother.”

“And if it weren’t for me, you might be dead in a ditch somewhere. You should be grateful I don’t make you sleep on the couch.”

“That’s an option? I’m very comfortable, I can just stay here.”

“What did I tell you? Don’t be stupid.”

Merlin rolled his eyes and got up, following Arthur into his room. Arthur handed him the same pair of shorts for the third time in a row, so Merlin was almost positive he’d set them aside just for him.

After they got changed, they went to the bathroom, where Merlin’s new toothbrush was sitting in the same cup as Arthur’s. They brushed in silence, both of them too sleepy to make any snarky comments to one another, especially with their mouths full of toothpaste.

When they finally crawled into bed, Merlin drifted off easily. The duvet was warm and the pillow was soft, and the knowledge that Arthur was less than a foot away lulled him into a deep sleep.

Merlin awoke in the early morning with Arthur’s arm around his waist. His chest was pressed up against Merlin’s back, and Merlin could feel Arthur’s breath on his neck. It was lovely, being held. Merlin got very lonely when he spent too many nights in his room by himself. Spending time with Arthur certainly helped, but it was still hard to go home every night to an empty room. This was only the third time Arthur had invited him to stay the night, but already he couldn’t wait for the next. Sometimes, on the rare occasion when they hung out in Merlin’s dorm room, he was tempted to give Arthur one too many drinks so that they’d be forced to share Merlin’s twin bed. He hadn’t yet worked up the courage, and he also thought that the ethics of getting Arthur drunk for his own gain were questionable, but still. He was lonely.

It was barely after sunrise when he first awoke, so Merlin laid in bed for what felt like hours waiting for Arthur to wake up. He wasn’t complaining, though. Arthur’s bed was warm, as was his body pressed up against him, and Merlin had nowhere to be for the rest of the day. When Arthur finally started to stir, Merlin pretended to be asleep.

Much to Merlin’s surprise, Arthur didn’t move his arm from around his waist. He sat up a bit to check that Merlin was still sleeping, then laid back down, tightening his embrace. Merlin’s stomach fluttered happily, and he felt his face heat up at the thought of Arthur intentionally holding him in such a tender way.

After working up the nerve, Merlin placed his own hand over where Arthur’s was resting on his stomach. He heard Arthur’s breath hitch behind him, but was relieved when he didn’t pull his hand away. For a minute they sat in quiet limbo, both of them acutely aware of the anticipation that hung heavy in the air.

Merlin was working up the courage to turn around when he felt a hand pushing him down so that he was laying flat on his back. He looked up into Arthur’s face, his expression uncertain but hopeful. Merlin’s gaze flitted between Arthur’s eyes and his lips a few times, and he closed his eyes when Arthur leaned down.

The moment their lips touched, it felt as though the whole world came to a screeching halt. Everything felt right, from the feel of Arthur’s lips on his to the pressure of his hand still on his shoulder. The kiss was tame, chaste, and yet it sent Merlin’s mind running a million miles an hour. When they parted, Arthur grinned down at him, and Merlin grinned back.

“Your breath smells less like feet this morning,” Arthur said, “Well done.”

“I think that’s actually your doing, what with your special toothbrush that you bought just for me.”

“Oh don’t be daft, I merely gave you the extra one I kept under the sink. I didn’t buy it for you.”

“I’m sure you didn’t.”

“It’s not as though your breath smells like roses anyway, I’d still prefer if you brushed. I’m just saying the foot smell is less overwhelming.”

“I see. Are you saying I won’t get another kiss until I’ve brushed my teeth?”

“What makes you think you’re getting another kiss at all?”

“Oh, just a hunch,” Merlin smiled, rolling out of bed.

“Hey, I didn’t say you could leave,” Arthur said.

“I thought I’d freshen up for the next time you decide to plant one on me,” Merlin replied, already halfway to the bathroom.

Arthur grinned, following him down the hall.

––––

That night, Merlin and Arthur found themselves sitting on the couch, watching a movie like they had the night before, but this time neither of them were paying too much attention. They’d spent the day lounging about, laying in each others’ arms and enjoying the smiley haze that had settled in the air when they kissed that morning. Now, Merlin was laying next to Arthur, his head tucked into Arthur’s neck. Occasionally, Merlin would press a lazy kiss to his jaw or his shoulder, then go back to watching the movie.

“So… I don’t mean to be presumptuous…” Merlin started.

“Go on,” Arthur said.

“Are we…is it too soon to ask if we’re… together? Is that what this is?”

“Is that what you want it to be?”

“I– yes, I think so. If that’s what you–”

“Good, then we’re agreed,” Arthur interrupted.

“Oh,” Merlin said, sitting up to look at his new… boyfriend? Partner? They’d work on the terminology later. For now, Merlin had other things on his mind. “Can we go to bed?” he asked.

“But it’s barely 8 o’clock.”

“I didn’t say I wanted to sleep.”

“Oh. Oh, I – yes. Yes we can,” Arthur stammered, his face heating up. Merlin grinned, pleased that he could have such an effect on the man.

They walked hand-in-hand down the hallway, both of them overwhelmed with the idea of what they were about to do. Merlin couldn’t believe that Arthur, his best friend of more than a year, had kissed him just that morning. He also couldn’t believe that he had so quickly agreed to be in a relationship with him, as if he’d considered the thought before that morning. The thought was enough to make Merlin’s heart swell with joy.

After what felt like the longest walk of their lives, Arthur and Merlin had arrived in the bedroom, and were now standing awkwardly next to the bed.

“So, should we…” Merlin started. He trailed off when he felt Arthur’s hand on his hip, his thumb tucking into the waistband of the shorts he had worn to bed last night.

“I was thinking we could get right down to business,” Arthur said in a voice so sultry Merlin thought it might make him pass out.

“I think that’s a wonderful plan,” he choked out. Arthur smiled fondly at him, so Merlin kissed his cheek, since he wasn’t sure he’d be able to continue forming sentences.

“You missed,” Arthur said, placing a hand on the side of Merlin’s face, his thumb running over his cheek. When Merlin started to blush, Arthur kissed him square on the mouth. Since their first kiss that morning, the only kisses they’d shared had been soft and gentle. Now that Arthur had one hand on Merlin’s face and another tucked into his shorts, it was easy for him to deepen their kiss.

Merlin placed his hands on Arthur’s waist and pulled their bodies closer together. He felt the bulge in Arthur’s shorts getting bigger alongside his own. He was getting more and more excited, so much that he accidentally let a moan slip out of his mouth. Arthur pulled back and grinned at him.

“Someone’s in the mood,” he said, and Merlin flushed.

“Don’t pretend you aren’t as well, I can feel your erection on my hip.”

“Jesus, Merlin, do you have to call it that?”

“What, an erection?”

“Yes, it’s so… clinical.”

“I disagree, but fine. I can feel your cock against my hip. Is that better?”

Arthur paused for a second to clear his throat. “Much. Thank you. Now can we get back to the kissing?”

“I think it’s clear you’re ready for more than kissing, what with your hard cock poking out of your shorts.”

This time it was Arthur who flushed, looking down ashamedly to see the evidence of his own arousal.

“Alright then, would you like to join me in the bed for some… fornication?”

“Now who’s clinical?” Merlin grinned, proud to have had such an effect on him.

The pair undressed slowly, drinking in the appearance of each others’ half-naked bodies. Once Arthur had his thumbs hooked into the waistband of his underwear, he paused. Looking over at Merlin, he saw that they were both a bit timid, neither of them completely naked.

“How about we do it together, on three?” Merlin suggested. Arthur nodded, taking a deep breath.

“One… two… three!” shouted Merlin. At that moment, they each took off their underwear, their cocks springing free. Arthur felt his breathing speed up at the sight of Merlin’s body on full display.

“You’re…fucking gorgeous,” Arthur stammered.

“You’re not bad yourself,” Merlin smirked, eyeing him up and down before stepping forward and kissing him again. The feeling of their cocks brushing against each other nearly made Arthur’s heart stop, and he had to pause for a moment to make sure he didn’t pass out.

“Why don’t we lie down?” Merlin asked, noticing Arthur’s lightheadedness.

“That’s a brilliant plan,” Arthur said, making his way to the bed. Having something solid underneath him definitely helped him regain his composure, but the moment he felt Merlin’s lips wrap around the head of his cock, Arthur started to get dizzy again. He threaded a hand through Merlin’s hair and tried with all of his might not to thrust upward. He was mostly successful, though the few times he lost control and fucked into Merlin’s mouth, he took it like a champ, swallowing down the extra length like it was nothing. It only took a few minutes for Arthur to feel his orgasm approaching, so he tugged on Merlin’s hair to signal him to stop. He didn’t get the hint.

“Merlin, I… if you don’t stop…” Merlin popped his head up briefly, sporting a wicked grin.

“I want you to cum all over my pretty face, Arthur,” he panted, “want you to get my hair all sticky, maybe get some in my eye.” Arthur’s cock twitched in response, cold from the sudden loss of contact and aching to do exactly what Merlin was suggesting.

“But I want to… I want more than just a blowjob,” he said, “I want to fuck.”

“Oh, we will, don’t worry,” Merlin laughed. “This is only your first of many orgasms tonight.” With that, he dropped his head back down and wrapped his mouth around Arthur’s neglected cock, almost reaching the base with his lips. Arthur’s eyes rolled back in his head, trying to hold on just a bit longer. Thirty seconds passed and he knew he was about to burst, so he tapped Merlin’s shoulder as a warning. Merlin pulled off with a pop and positioned his face right by the head of Arthur’s cock in preparation.

The cool breeze on his spit-slicked cock and Merlin’s proud face, ready to be cummed on, were enough to send him over the edge. Arthur came hard, thick, white ropes of cum splattering over Merlin’s mouth, nose, eyes, hair, and anything else in range. He made a mental note to change the sheets later, because he was sure he’d gotten some on them too, and he was sure they would only get dirtier as the night went on.

Merlin licked the cum off his lips, wiped it out of his eyes, and brushed it through his hair, clearly elated to have been marked in such a way. Arthur could feel his cock hardening again at the sight of it, as if he hadn’t just cum less than a minute ago.

“Okay, your turn,” he said, thrilled to make Merlin feel as heavenly as he just had. Merlin put up no protest, laying back to take Arthur’s place on the pillow, his leaking, rock-hard cock on proud display.

Arthur took a moment to drink it all in before bending down to take Merlin’s cock in his mouth. This was new for him, though he was sure he could figure out the mechanics fairly easily. After a minute Arthur got into a rhythm, sucking up and down Merlin’s cock and using his hand to stroke it at the same time. It was thicker than he was expecting from a man of Merlin’s stature, but not so unreasonable that he couldn’t fit it in his mouth. In fact, he found himself thinking that it was about the perfect size for him; decently long, certainly bigger than average, but small enough that Arthur could fit the whole thing in his mouth for a second or two if he really pushed himself.

“Jesus, Arthur, where did you learn to do that?” Merlin panted, his legs wrapped around Arthur’s neck and his fingers gripping the sheets with all their might. “I thought you’d never been with a guy before.”

“Just because I haven’t practiced on another human doesn’t mean I haven’t practiced,” Arthur said, getting right back to work. Merlin shuddered, picturing Arthur sucking on a banana or a cucumber, practicing his technique for the day he’d finally get to show it off.

“Arthur, I – I’m about to cum,” he said, bucking his hips into Arthur’s hot, wet mouth. Merlin tried to hold on, to wait for Arthur to move before shooting his load, but he stayed still.

“Do you want me to cum in your mouth?” Merlin asked in a last ditch effort to get him out of the way before he came, but still Arthur didn’t move, only looked up to hold Merlin’s gaze. That was enough to send him over the edge, and Merlin came, pulsing over and over into Arthur’s waiting mouth. He swallowed a lot of it, unfazed by it’s salty flavor. When Merlin was done, Arthur opened his mouth to reveal his tongue, covered in Merlin’s cum. The sight of it made him audibly whimper.

“Fuck, Arthur,” he moaned, “get over here.” He pulled Arthur closer and wrapped him into a kiss, licking into his mouth so he could get a taste of his own cum.

“Do you know how fucking hot you are?” Merlin asked, between kisses, “how horny you make me?”

“Horny enough to go again?” Arthur asked, grinning.

“A million times yes,” Merlin laughed, reaching for the nightstand.

“Don’t bother, I don’t have any condoms in there,” Arthur said. “I haven’t been with anyone since the last time I got tested, have you?” he asked.

“No, come to think of it, I haven’t,” Merlin said. “How lucky. We still need lube, though,” he said, reaching for the drawer again.

“Actually, I find that spit is quite effective in large enough quantities,” Arthur said, “and I really want to spit all over your pretty little bum.” Merlin grinned, wondering just how often Arthur fucked himself with a banana covered in his own spit.

“Did you want to be fucked or would you like to fuck me?” Merlin asked.

“I think for tonight I’d like to fuck you,” he replied, “but I’d love for you to fuck me tomorrow.”

“Works for me,” Merlin said, rolling over to give Arthur easy access to his “pretty little bum,” as he’d put it. Arthur tugged on his shoulder, indicating that he wanted him to flip back over.

“I want to see your face when I do this,” he said, his head dipping down between Merlin’s legs. He started by licking around the edges of Merlin’s hole, teasing his entrance. Then he stuck two fingers in his own mouth, making sure they were nice and slick, before pressing them inside. Merlin gasped, squeezing around Arthur’s fingers, before relaxing enough to let him slide all the way in. Arthur fingered him for a while, pumping in and out until Merlin was begging for more.

Arthur pulled his fingers out, earning a groan from Merlin, and slung both of his legs over his shoulders so he could get a better angle. He worked up a glob of spit in his mouth, then dropped it right on Merlin’s aching hole, which was contracting and releasing at the loss of Arthur’s fingers. He worked up another glob of spit, much bigger this time, and slathered it around his cock, which had gotten painfully hard again during his blowjob for Merlin.

“Are you ready for the whole thing?” he asked, and Merlin nodded frantically.

“Please, fuck, I want it so bad,” Merlin whined.

“I can see that,” Arthur grinned, lining his cock up with Merlin’s entrance. Figuring he could take it, he pushed right in. Merlin moaned loudly, and for a moment Arthur worried he had hurt him.

“What are you doing? Move!” Merlin cried, and Arthur was relieved. He pulled out, then pushed back in, starting up a steady rhythm that had Merlin groaning in pleasure. The first time he hit Merlin’s prostate, he saw Merlin’s eyes roll back and he whined. Arthur grinned, fucking into him harder, hitting that spot every time, until Merlin was practically screaming.

“Fuckfuckfuck Arthur I’m gonna–” Merlin shouted, cumming in thick spurts all over his stomach, his cock untouched. As he rode out his orgasm, his ass squeezed around Arthur, who pulled out just in time to shoot his load all over Merlin’s face for a second time that night. Merlin wasn’t expecting it, but he certainly wasn’t unhappy about it. He licked everything he could off of his own face (again) and then wiped some off of his stomach to lick up as well.

“You’re so fucking hungry for cum,” Arthur said, as if it wasn’t blatantly obvious.

“There’s no better taste,” Merlin said, still eating it off of his own belly. “They should sell it in stores as an ice cream topping.”

“Don’t give me any ideas,” Arthur chuckled, laying down next to his gorgeous, fucked-dry new boyfriend.

“Already tried it. It’s as good as you’re imagining,” Merlin grinned. “Now, shall we go again?” Arthur smiled at him, feeling the blood rush to his cock for the third time that night.

“I’d be delighted,” he replied, thinking how grateful he was that innocent bed-sharing had turned into this.

Источник: https://archiveofourown.org/works/35305471

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  • Источник: https://www.gap.com/browse/division.do?cid=6170

    François Truffaut

    French film director

    "Truffaut" redirects here. For other people with that surname, see Truffaut (surname).

    François Truffaut

    François Truffaut (1965).jpg

    Truffaut in 1965

    Born

    François Roland Truffaut


    (1932-02-06)6 February 1932

    Paris, France

    Died21 October 1984(1984-10-21) (aged 52)

    Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

    Resting placeMontmartre Cemetery
    Occupation
    • Director
    • screenwriter
    • producer
    • actor
    • film critic
    Years active1955–1984
    MovementFrench New Wave
    Spouse(s)

    Madeleine Morgenstern

    (m. 1957; div. 1965)​
    Partner(s)Fanny Ardant (1981–1984; his death)
    Children3

    François Roland Truffaut (TROO-foh, TRUUF-oh,[1][2]troo-FOH;[2][3][4]French: [fʁɑ̃swa ʁɔlɑ̃ tʁyfo]; 6 February 1st kiss jean shorts – 21 October 1984) was a French film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film critic. He is widely regarded as one of the founders of the French New Wave.[5] In a career lasting over a quarter of a century, he remains an icon of the French film industry, having worked on over 25 films.

    Truffaut's film The 400 Blows is a defining film of the French New Wave movement, and has four sequels, Antoine et Colette, Stolen Kisses, Bed and Board, and Love on the Run, made between 1958 and 1979. Truffaut's 1973 film Day for Night earned him critical acclaim and several accolades, including the BAFTA Award for Best Film and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

    His other notable films include Shoot the Piano Player (1960), Jules and Jim (1962), The Soft Skin (1964), The Wild Child (1970), Two English Girls (1971), The Last Metro (1980), and The Woman Next Door (1981). He is also known for his supporting role in the film Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977).

    Truffaut also wrote the notable book Hitchcock/Truffaut (1966), which detailed his interviews with film director Alfred Hitchcock during the 1960s.

    Early life[edit]

    Truffaut was born in Paris on 6 February 1932. His mother was Janine de Montferrand. His mother's future husband, Roland Truffaut, accepted him as an adopted son and gave him his surname. He was passed around to live with various nannies and his grandmother for a number of years. His grandmother instilled in him her love of books and music. He lived with her until her death, when Truffaut was eight years old. It was only after her death that he lived with his parents.[6] The identity of Truffaut's biological father is unknown, but a private detective agency in 1968 revealed that its inquiry into the matter led to a Roland Levy, a Jewish dentist from Bayonne. Truffaut's mother's family disputed the finding but Truffaut believed and embraced it.[7]

    Truffaut often stayed with friends and tried to be out of the house as much as possible. He knew Robert Lachenay from childhood, and they were lifelong best friends. Lachenay was the inspiration for the character René Bigey in The 400 Blows and worked as an assistant on some of Truffaut's films. Cinema offered Truffaut the greatest escape from an unsatisfying home life. 1st kiss jean shorts was eight years old when he saw his first movie, Abel Gance's Paradis Perdu (Paradise Lost, 1939), beginning his obsession. He frequently skipped school and sneaked into theaters because he lacked the money for admission. After being expelled from several schools, at age 14 he decided to become self-taught. Two fifth third bank car loan customer service number his academic goals were to watch three movies a day and read three books a week.[6][8]

    Truffaut frequented Henri Langlois's Cinémathèque Française, where he was exposed to countless foreign films, becoming familiar with American cinema and directors such as John Ford, Howard Hawks and Nicholas Ray, as well as those of British director Alfred Hitchcock.[9]

    Career[edit]

    André Bazin[edit]

    After starting his own film club in 1948, Truffaut met André Bazin, who had a great effect on his professional and personal life. Bazin was a critic and the head of another film society at the time. He became a personal friend of Truffaut's and helped him out of various financial and criminal situations during his formative years.[10]

    Truffaut joined the French Army in 1950, aged 18, but spent the next two years trying to escape. He was arrested for attempting to desert the army and incarcerated in military prison. Bazin used his political contacts to get Truffaut released and set him up with a job at his new film magazine, Cahiers du cinéma.

    Cahiers du Cinema[edit]

    Over the next few years, Truffaut became a critic (and later editor) at Cahiers, where he became notorious for his brutal, unforgiving reviews. He was called "The Gravedigger of French Cinema"[11] and was the only French critic not invited to the 1958 Cannes Film Festival. He supported Bazin in developing one of the most influential theories of cinema, the auteur theory.[12]

    In 1954, Truffaut wrote an article in Cahiers du cinéma, "Une Certaine Tendance du Cinéma Français" ("A Certain Trend of French Cinema"),[8] in which he attacked the state of French films, lambasting certain screenwriters and producers, and farmers and mechanics bank durham nc eight directors he considered incapable of devising the kinds of "vile" and "grotesque" characters and storylines he called characteristic of the mainstream French film industry: Jean Renoir, Robert Bresson, Jean Cocteau, Jacques Becker, Abel Gance, Max Ophuls, Jacques Tati and Roger Leenhardt. The article caused a storm of controversy, and landed Truffaut an offer to write for the nationally circulated, more widely read cultural weekly Arts-Lettres-Spectacles. Truffaut wrote more than 500 film articles for that publication over the next four years.

    Truffaut later devised the auteur theory, according to which the director was the "author" of his work and great directors such as Renoir or Hitchcock have distinct styles and themes that permeate their films. Although his theory was not widely accepted then, it gained some support in the 1960s from American critic Andrew Sarris. In 1967, Truffaut published his book-length interview of Hitchcock, Hitchcock/Truffaut (New York: Simon and Schuster).

    Short films[edit]

    After having been a critic, Truffaut decided to make films. He began with the short film Une Visite (1955) and followed it with Les Mistons (1957).

    The 400 Blows[edit]

    After seeing Orson Welles's Touch of Evil at the Expo 58, Truffaut made his feature film directorial debut with The 400 Blows (1959), which received considerable critical and commercial acclaim. He won the Best Director award at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival. The film follows the character of Antoine Doinel through his perilous misadventures in school, an unhappy home life and later reform school. The film is highly autobiographical. Both Truffaut and Doinel were only children of loveless marriages; they both committed petty crimes of theft and truancy from the military. Truffaut cast Jean-Pierre Léaud as Doinel. Léaud was seen as an ordinary boy of 14 who auditioned for the role after seeing a flyer, but interviews after the film's release (one is included on the Criterion DVD of the film) reveal Léaud's natural sophistication and an instinctive understanding of acting for the camera. Léaud and Truffaut collaborated on several films over the years. Their most noteworthy collaboration was the continuation of Doinel's story in a series of films called "The Antoine Doinel Cycle".

    The primary focus of The 400 Blows is Doinel's life. The film follows him through his troubled adolescence. He is caught in between an unstable parental relationship and an isolated youth. From birth Truffaut was thrown into a troublesome situation. As he was born out of wedlock, his birth had to remain a secret because of the stigma of illegitimacy. He was registered as "a child born to an unknown father" in hospital records and looked after by a nurse for an extended period of time. His mother eventually married and her husband gave François his surname, Truffaut.

    Although he was legally accepted as a legitimate child, his parents did not accept him. The Truffauts had another child, who died shortly after birth. This experience saddened them greatly and as a result they despised François because of the regret he represented (Knopf 4[specify]). He was an outcast from his earliest years, dismissed as an unwanted child. François was sent to live with his grandparents. When his grandmother died, his parents took him in, much to his mother's dismay. His experiences with his mother were harsh. He recalled being treated badly by her but found comfort in his father's laughter and spirit. François had a very depressing childhood after moving in with his parents. They left him alone when they took vacations. He even recalled being alone during Christmas. Being left alone forced François into independence, often doing various tasks around the house to improve it, such as painting or changing the electric outlets. Sadly, these kind gestures often resulted in catastrophic events, causing him to get scolded by his mother. His father mostly laughed them off.

    The 400 Blows marked the beginning of the French New Wave movement, which gave directors such as Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol and Jacques Rivette a wider audience. The New Wave dealt with a self-conscious rejection of traditional cinema structure. This was a topic on which Truffaut had been writing for years.

    Shoot the Piano Player[edit]

    Following the success of The 400 Blows, Truffaut featured disjunctive editing and seemingly random voiceovers in his next film, Shoot the Piano Player (1960), starring Charles Aznavour. Truffaut has said that in the middle of filming, he realized that he hated gangsters. But since gangsters were a main part of the story, he toned up the comical aspect of the characters and made the movie more to his liking.

    Even though Shoot the Piano Player was much appreciated by critics, it performed poorly at the box office. While the film focused on two of the French New Wave's favorite elements, American film noir and themselves, Truffaut never again experimented as heavily.

    Jules and Jim and The Soft Skin[edit]

    In 1962, Truffaut directed his third movie, Jules and Jim, a romantic drama starring Jeanne Moreau. The film was very popular and highly influential.

    In 1963, Truffaut was approached to direct the American film Bonnie and Clyde, with a treatment written by Esquire journalists David Newman and Robert Benton intended to introduce the French New Wave to Hollywood. Although he was interested enough to help in script development, Truffaut ultimately declined, but not before interesting Jean-Luc Godard and American actor and would-be producer Warren Beatty, who proceeded with the film with director Arthur Penn.

    The fourth movie Truffaut directed was The Soft Skin (1964). It was not acclaimed on its release.

    Fahrenheit 451[edit]

    Truffaut's first non-French film was a 1966 adaptation of Ray Bradbury's classic science fiction novel Fahrenheit 451, showcasing Truffaut's love of books. His only English-speaking film, made on location in England, was a great challenge for Truffaut, because he barely spoke English saving account average interest rate. Shot by cinematographer Nicolas Roeg, this was Truffaut's first film in colour. The larger-scale production was difficult for Truffaut, who had worked only with small crews and budgets. The shoot was also strained by a conflict with lead actor Oscar Werner, who was unhappy with his character and stormed off set, leaving Truffaut to shoot scenes using a body double shot from behind. The film was a commercial failure, and Truffaut never worked outside France again. The film's cult standing has steadily grown, although some critics remain dubious of it as an adaptation.[13] A 2014 consideration of the film by Charles Silver praises it.[14]

    Thrillers and Stolen Kisses[edit]

    Truffaut worked on projects with varied subjects. The Bride Wore Black (1968), a brutal tale of revenge, is a stylish homage to the films of Alfred Hitchcock (once again starring Moreau).

    Stolen Kisses (1968) was a continuation of the Antoine Doinel Cycle starring Claude Jade as Antoine's fiancée and later wife Christine Darbon. During its filming Truffaut fell in love with Jade and was briefly engaged to her. It was a big hit on the international art circuit. A short time later Jade made her Hollywood debut in Hitchcock's Topaz.[15]

    Mississippi Mermaid (1969), with Catherine Deneuve and Jean-Paul Belmondo, is an identity-bending romantic thriller.

    The Wild Child (1970) included Truffaut's acting debut in the lead role of 18th-century physician Jean Marc Gaspard Itard.

    Doinel marries Christine[edit]

    Bed and Board (1970) was another Antoine Doinel film, also with Jade, now Léaud's on-screen-wife.

    Two English Girls (1971) is the female reflection of the same love story as "Jules et Jim". It is based on a story by Henri-Pierre Roché, who wrote Jules and Jim, about a man who falls equally in love with two sisters, and their love affair over a period of years.

    Such a Gorgeous Kid Like Me (1972) was a screwball comedy that was not well received.

    Day for Night[edit]

    Day for Night won Truffaut a Best Foreign Film Oscar.[16] The film is probably his most reflective work. It is the story of a film crew trying to finish a film while dealing with the personal and professional problems that accompany making a movie. Truffaut plays the director of the fictional film being made. This film features scenes from his previous films. It is considered his best film since his earliest work. Time Magazine placed it on its list of 100 Best Films of the Century (along with The 400 Blows).

    In 1975, Truffaut gained more notoriety with The Story of Adèle H.; Isabelle Adjani in the title role earned a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actress. His 1976 film Small Change was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

    The late 70s and the last Doinel[edit]

    The Man Who Loved Women (1977), a romantic drama, was a minor hit.

    Truffaut also appeared in Steven Spielberg's 1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind as scientist Claude Lacombe.[17]

    The Green Room (1978) starred Truffaut in the lead. It was a box-office flop, so he made Love on the Run (1979) starring Léaud first citizens bank seneca sc hours Jade as the final movie of the Doinel Cycle.

    The Last Metro[edit]

    One of Truffaut's final films gave him an international revival. The Last Metro (1980) garnered 12 César Award nominations and 10 wins, including Best Director.

    Final films[edit]

    Truffaut's last film was shot in black and white, giving his career a sense of having bookends. Confidentially Yours is Truffaut's tribute to his favorite director, Hitchcock. It deals with numerous Hitchcockian themes, such as private guilt versus public innocence, a woman investigating a murder, and anonymous locations.

    A keen reader, Truffaut adapted many literary works, including two novels by Henri-Pierre Roché, Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, Henry James's "The Altar of the Dead", filmed as The Green Room, and several American detective novels.

    Truffaut's other films were from original screenplays, often co-written by the screenwriters Suzanne Schiffman or Jean Gruault. They featured diverse subjects, the sombre The Story of Adèle H. inspired by the life of the daughter of Victor Hugo, with Isabelle Adjani; Day for Night, shot at the Victorine Studios, depicting the ups and downs of filmmaking; and The Last Metro, set during the German occupation of France during World War II, a film rewarded by ten César Awards.

    Known as a lifelong cinephile, Truffaut once (according to the 1993 documentary film François Truffaut: Stolen Portraits) threw a hitchhiker out of his car after learning that he didn't like films.

    Many filmmakers admire Truffaut, and tributes to his work have appeared in films such as Almost Famous, Face and The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, as well as novelist Haruki Murakami's Kafka on the Shore.

    Attitude towards other filmmakers[edit]

    Truffaut expressed his admiration for filmmakers such as Luis Buñuel, Ingmar Bergman, Robert Bresson, Roberto Rossellini, and Alfred Hitchcock. Truffaut wrote Hitchcock/Truffaut, a book about Hitchcock, based on a lengthy series of interviews.[18]

    Of Jean Renoir, he said: "I think Renoir is the only filmmaker who's practically infallible, who has never made a mistake on film. And I think if he never made mistakes, it's because he always found solutions based on simplicity—human solutions. He's one film director who never pretended. He never tried to have a style, and if you know his work—which is very comprehensive, since he dealt with all sorts of subjects—when you get stuck, especially as a young filmmaker, you can think of how Renoir would have handled the situation, and you generally find a solution".[19]

    Truffaut called German filmmaker Werner Herzog "the most important film director alive."[20]

    Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard, his colleague from Les Cahiers du Cinéma, worked together closely during their start as film directors although they had different working methods. Tensions came to the surface after May 68: Godard wanted a more political, specifically Marxist cinema, Truffaut was critical of creating films for primarily political purposes.[21] In 1973, Godard accused Truffaut of making a movie that was a "lie" (Day For Night), and Truffaut replied with a 20-page letter in which he accused Godard of being a radical-chic hypocrite, a man who believed everyone to be "equal" in theory only. "The Ursula Andress of militancy—like Brando—a piece of shit on a pedestal." Godard tried to reconcile with Truffaut later on, but they never spoke to or saw each other again.[22] After Truffaut's death, Godard wrote the introduction to a collection of his letters and a long tribute in his film Histoire(s) du cinéma.[23]

    Personal life[edit]

    Truffaut was married to Madeleine Morgenstern from 1957 to 1965, and they had two daughters, Laura (born 1959) and Eva (born 1961). Madeleine was the daughter of Ignace Morgenstern, managing director of one of France's largest film distribution companies, Cocinor, and was largely responsible for securing funding for Truffaut's first films.

    In 1968 Truffaut was engaged to actress Claude Jade (Stolen Kisses, Bed and Board, Love on the Run); he and Fanny Ardant (The Woman Next Door, Confidentially Yours) lived together from 1981 to 1984 and had a daughter, Joséphine Truffaut (born 28 September 1983).[6][24]

    Truffaut was an atheist, but had great respect for the Catholic Church and requested a Requiem Mass for his funeral.[25][26]

    Death[edit]

    In July 1983, Truffaut rented France Gall's and Michel Berger's house outside Honfleur, Normandy (composing for Philippe Labro's film Rive droite, rive gauche) when he had his first stroke and was diagnosed with a brain tumor.[27] He was expected to attend his friend Miloš Forman's Amadeus premiere[28] when he died on 21 October 1984, aged 52, at the American Hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine in France.[29]

    At the time of his death, he had numerous films in preparation. He had intended to make 30 films and then retire to write books for the remainder of his life. He was five films short of that aim. He is buried in Montmartre Cemetery.[30]

    Filmography[edit]

    Director[edit]

    Feature films[edit]

    Shorts films and collaborations[edit]

    Screenwriter only[edit]

    Actor[edit]

    Producer only[edit]

    Bibliography[edit]

    • Les 400 Coups (1960) with M. Moussy (English translation: The 400 Blows)
    • Le Cinéma selon Alfred Hitchcock (1967, second edition 1983) (English translation: Hitchcock and Hitchcock/Truffaut with the collaboration of Helen G. Scott)
    • Les Aventures d'Antoine Doinel (1970) (English translation: Adventures of Antoine Doinel; translated by Helen G. Scott)
    • Jules et Jim (film script) (1971) (English translation: Jules and Jim; translated by Nicholas Fry)
    • La Nuit américaine et le Journal de Fahrenheit 451 (1974)
    • Le Plaisir des yeux (1975)
    • L'Argent de poche (1976) (English title: Small change: a film novel; translated by Anselm Hollo)
    • L'Homme qui aimait les femmes (1977)
    • Les Films de ma vie (1981) (English translation: Films in my life; translated by Leonard Mayhew)
    • Correspondance (1988) (English translation: Correspondence, 1945–1984; translated by Gilbert Adair, released posthumously)
    • Le Cinéma selon François Truffaut (1988) edited by Anne Gillain (released posthumously)
    • Belle époque (1996) with Jean How to order in amazon (released posthumously)

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^"Truffaut, François". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
    2. ^ ab"Truffaut, François". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
    3. ^"Truffaut". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
    4. ^"Truffaut". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
    5. ^Obituary Variety, 24 October 1984.
    6. ^ abc"FRANCOIS TRUFFAUT – French New Wave Director". Newwavefilm.com. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
    7. ^Robert Ingram; Paul Duncan (2004). François Truffaut: Film Author, 1932-1983. Taschen. p. 94. ISBN .
    8. ^ ab"François Truffaut – Movie and Film Biography and Filmography". Allmovie.com. 21 October 1984. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
    9. ^"'Francois Truffaut' at the Cinematheque Francaise: Exhibition Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
    10. ^Truffaut, François (1989). Correspondence, 1945–1984. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 17, 50, 57.
    11. ^SUKHDEV SANDHU (2 April 2009). "Film as an act of love". New Statesman.
    12. ^The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (20 July 1998). "Auteur theory FILMMAKING". Encyclopedia Britannica.
    13. ^John Brosnan and Peter Nicholls, Fahrenheit 451, Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
    14. ^Charles Silver, Francois Truffaut’s Fahrenheit 451, Inside Out, MoMA. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
    15. ^Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, University of Wisconsin Press, 1987 p. 282
    16. ^ abc"The 47th Academy Awards (1975) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
    17. ^Aurélien Ferenczi (26 October 2014). "Qu'allait-donc faire Truffaut chez Spielberg ?". Télérama.
    18. ^François Truffaut. "Hitchcock". Goodreads. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
    19. ^On Jean Renoir TRUFFAUT’S LAST INTERVIEW
    20. ^Cronin, Paul; Werner Herzog (2002). Herzog on Herzog. London: Faber and Faber. pp. vii–viii. ISBN .
    21. ^"Subscribe to read | Financial Times". www.ft.com.
    22. ^Gleiberman, Owen. "Godard and Truffaut: Their spiky, complex friendship is its own great story in 'Two in the Wave".
    23. ^de Baecque, Antione; Toubiana, Serge (2000). Truffaut: A Biography. University of California Press. ISBN .
    24. ^Eric Pace (22 October 1984). "Francois Truffaut, New Wave Director, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
    25. ^Eric Michael Mazur (2011). Encyclopedia of Religion and Film. ABC-CLIO. p. 438. ISBN .
    26. ^David Sterritt (1999). The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN .
    27. ^Antoine de Baecque and Serge Toubiana's Biography of François Truffaut
    28. ^"Truffaut : un classique (1970-80)". francetv.fr. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
    29. ^"Francois Truffaut, New Wave Director, Dies". The New York Times. 22 October 1984. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
    30. ^"Journées du patrimoine 2011 Paris 18ème, le programme". Le Figaro. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
    31. ^"The 32nd Academy Awards (1960) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
    32. ^"The 41st Academy Awards (1969) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
    33. ^"IMDB.com: Awards for Small Change". imdb.com. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
    34. ^"IMDB.com: Awards for The Man Who Loved Women". imdb.com. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
    35. ^"IMDB.com: Awards for Love on the Run". imdb.com. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
    36. ^"The 53rd Academy Awards (1981) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
    37. ^"François Truffaut, l'exposition". Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.

    External links[edit]

    Awards for François Truffaut

    Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Truffaut

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    June Allyson

    American actress (1917–2006)

    June Allyson

    June Allyson-publicity.jpg

    Allyson in 1944

    Born

    Eleanor Geisman


    (1917-10-07)October 7, 1917

    The Bronx, New York City, New York, U.S

    DiedJuly 8, 2006(2006-07-08) (aged 88)

    Ojai, California, U.S.

    Resting placeForest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, California, U.S.
    NationalityAmerican
    Other namesJune Allison
    Occupation
    Years active1936–2001
    Height5 ft 2 in (157 cm)
    Spouse(s)

    Dick Powell

    (m. 1945; died 1963)​

    Alfred Glenn Maxwell

    (m. 1963; div. 1965)​

    Alfred Glenn Maxwell

    (m. 1966; div. 1970)​

    David Ashrow

    (m. 1976⁠–⁠2006)​
    AwardsGolden Globe – Best Actress (1951)
    Websitewww.juneallyson.com

    June Allyson (born Eleanor Geisman; October 7, 1917 – July 8, 2006) was an American stage, film, and television actress, dancer, and singer.

    Allyson began her career in 1937 as a dancer in short subject films and on Broadway in 1938. She signed with MGM in 1943, and rose to fame the following year in Two Girls and a Sailor. Allyson's "girl next door" image was solidified during the mid-1940s when she was paired with actor Van Johnson in six films. In 1951, she won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for her performance in Too Young to Kiss. From 1959 to 1961, she hosted and occasionally starred in her own anthology series, The DuPont Show with June Allyson, which aired on CBS.

    In the 1970s, she returned to the stage starring in Forty Carats and No, No, Nanette. In 1982, Allyson released apartments in edmond ok by uco autobiography June Allyson by June Allyson, and continued her career with guest starring roles on television and occasional film appearances. She later established the June Allyson Foundation for Public Awareness and Medical Research and worked to raise money for research for urological and gynecological diseases affecting senior citizens. During the 1980s, Allyson also became a spokesperson for Depend undergarments,[1] in a successful marketing campaign that has been credited in reducing the social stigma of incontinence.[2] She made her final onscreen appearance in 2001.

    Allyson was married four times (to three husbands) and had two children with her first husband, Dick Powell. She died of respiratory failure and bronchitis in July 2006 at the age of 88.

    Early life[edit]

    Allyson was born Eleanor Geisman,[3] nicknamed Ella, in the Bronx, New York City. She was the daughter of Clara (née Provost) and Robert Geisman. She had a brother, Henry, who was two years older. She said she had been raised as a Catholic,[citation needed] but a discrepancy exists relating to her early life, and her studio biography was often the source of the confusion. Her paternal grandparents, Harry Geisman and Anna Hafner, were immigrants from Germany[3] although Allyson claimed her last name was originally "Van Geisman", and was of Dutch origin.[4] Studio biographies listed her as Jan Allyson born to French-English parents. Upon her death, her daughter said Allyson was born "Eleanor Geisman to a French mother and Dutch father."[5][N 1]

    In April 1918 (when Allyson was six months old), her alcoholic father, who had worked as a janitor, abandoned the family. Allyson was brought up in near poverty, living with her maternal grandparents.[6] To make ends meet, her mother worked as a telephone operator and restaurant cashier. When she had enough funds, she occasionally reunited with her daughter, but more often Allyson was "farmed" to her grandparents or other relatives.[6]

    Accident[edit]

    In 1925 (when Allyson was eight), a tree branch fell on her while she was riding her tricycle with her pet terrier in tow.[7] Allyson sustained a fractured skull and broken back, and her dog was killed. Her doctors said she never would walk again and confined her to a heavy steel brace from neck to hips for four years, and she ultimately regained her health, but when Allyson had become famous, she was terrified that people would discover her background from the "tenement side of New York City", and she readily agreed to studio tales of a "rosy life", including a concocted story that she underwent months of swimming exercises in rehabilitation to emerge as a star swimmer.[6] In her later memoirs, Allyson describes a summer program of swimming that did help her recovery.[8][9]

    After gradually progressing from a wheelchair to crutches to braces, Allyson's true escape from her impoverished life was to go to the cinema, where she was enraptured by Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire movies.[6] As a teen, Allyson memorized the trademark dance routines of Ginger Rogers; she claimed later to have watched The Gay Divorcee 17 times.[10] She also tried to emulate the singing styles of movie stars, but she never mastered reading music.[11]

    When her mother remarried and the family was reunited with a more stable financial standing, Allyson was enrolled in the Ned Wayburn Dancing Academy and began to enter dance competitions with the stage name of Elaine Peters.[12]

    Career[edit]

    Early work[edit]

    With the death of her stepfather and a bleak future ahead, she left high school midway her junior year to seek jobs as a dancer. Her first $60-a-week job was as a tap dancer at the Lido Club in Montreal. Returning to New York, she found work as an actress in movie short subjects filmed by Educational Pictures at its Astoria, Queens NY studio.[13]

    Fiercely ambitious, Allyson tried her hand at modeling, but to her consternation became the "sad-looking before part" in a before-and-after bathing suit magazine ad.[14]

    Musical shorts[edit]

    Her first career break came when Educational cast her as an ingenue opposite singer Lee Sullivan, comic dancers Herman Timberg, Jr., and Pat Rooney, Jr., and future comedy star Danny 1st kiss jean shorts in a series of shorts. These included Swing 1st kiss jean shorts Sale (1937), Pixilated (1937), Ups and Downs (1937), Dime a Dance (1938), Dates and Nuts (1938) and Sing for Sweetie (1938).[15]

    When Educational ceased operations, Allyson moved to Vitaphone in Brooklyn and starred or co-starred (with dancer Hal Le Roy) in musical shorts. These included The Prisoner of Swing (1938), The Knight Is Young (1938), Rollin' in Rhythm (1939) and All Girl Revue (1940).

    Broadway[edit]

    Interspersing jobs in the chorus line at the Copacabana Club with acting roles at Vitaphone, the diminutive 5'1", below-100-pound Allyson landed a chorus job in the Broadway show Sing Out the News in 1938.[16]

    The “legend” around her stage name is that the choreographer gave her a job and a new name: Allyson, a family name, and June, for the month,[7] although like many aspects of her career resume, the story is highly unlikely as she was already dubbing herself "June Allyson" prior to her Broadway engagement. At one point she attributed the name to a director she worked with even later.[N 2]

    Allyson subsequently appeared in the chorus in the Jerome Kern–Oscar Hammerstein II musical Very Warm for May (1939).[13]

    When Vitaphone discontinued New York production in 1940, Allyson returned to the stage to take on more chorus roles in Rodgers and Hart's Higher and Higher (1940) and Cole Porter's Panama Hattie (1940).

    Her dancing and musical talent led to a stint as an understudy for the lead, Betty Hutton, and when Hutton contracted measles, Allyson appeared in five performances of Panama Hattie.[13] Broadway director George Abbott caught one of performances and offered Allyson one of the lead roles in his production of Best Foot Forward (1941).[17][15]

    Early films[edit]

    After her appearance in the Broadway musical, Allyson was selected for the 1943 film version of Best Foot Forward.[18] When she arrived in Hollywood, the production had not started, so MGM "placed her on the payroll" of Girl Crazy (1943). Despite playing a bit part", Allyson received good reviews as usaa deposit taking atms near me sidekick to Best Foot Forward's star, Lucille Ball, but was still relegated to the "drop list.[19]

    MGM's musical supervisor Arthur Freed saw her screen test sent up by an agent and insisted that Allyson be put on contract immediately.[20] Another musical, Thousands Cheer (1943), was a showcase for her singing, albeit still in a minor role.[21]

    As a new starlet, although Allyson had already been a performer on stage and screen for over five years, she was presented as an "overnight sensation", with Hollywood press agents attempting to portray her as an ingenue, selectively slicing years off her true age. Studio bios listed her variously as being born in 1922 and 1923.[6]

    Rising fame[edit]

    Allyson's breakthrough was in Two Girls and a Sailor (1944) where the studio image of the "girl next door"[22] was fostered by her being cast alongside long-time acting chum Van Johnson, the quintessential "boy next door."[23] As the "sweetheart team", Johnson and Allyson were to appear together in four later films.[24][25]

    Allyson supported Lucille Ball again in Meet the People (1944), which was a flop. It was on this film she met Dick Powell, whom she later married.[26]

    She supported Margaret O'Brien in Music for Millions (1944) and was billed after Robert Walker and Hedy Lamarr in the romantic comedyHer Highness and the Bellboy (1945).

    Stardom[edit]

    Allyson was top-billed along with Walker in The Sailor Takes a Wife (1945). She had a role in Two Sisters from Boston (1946) with Kathryn Grayson and Peter Lawford, and was one of several MGM stars in Till the Clouds Roll By (1946). She also appeared in her first drama, The Secret Heart, in 1946 with Claudette Colbert and Walter Pidgeon.[25]

    She was reunited with Johnson in High Barbaree (1947) and followed with the musical Good News, also in 1947.[17]

    Allyson starred with Johnson in the 1948 1st source serve all The Bride Goes Wild, then played Constance in the hugely popular 1948 The Three Musketeers (1948). Her song "Thou Swell" was a high point of the Rodgers and Hart biopic Words and Music (1948), as performed in the "A Connecticut Yankee" segment with the Blackburn Twins.[25]

    Allyson played the tomboyJo March in Little Women (1949), which was a huge hit. She was adept at crying on cue, and many of her films incorporated a crying scene. Fellow MGM player Margaret O'Brien recalled that she and Allyson were known as "the town criers".[27] "I zillow rockland county ny once in us bank near me open today picture and they said 'Let's do it again', and I cried for the rest of my career", she later said.[28]

    The same year, MGM announced Allyson would be in Forever by Mildred Crann, but the project was dropped.[25] Instead, she starred in The Stratton Story (1949) with James Stewart, which she later said was her favorite film.[28]

    She made two films with Dick Powell: The Reformer and the Redhead (1950) and Right Cross (1950), after which she was reunited with Johnson in Too Young to Kiss (1951).

    In 1950, Allyson had been signed to appear opposite her childhood idol Fred Astaire in Royal Wedding, but had to leave the production due pregnancy. She was 2020 jaguar f pace seating capacity initially by Judy Garland, who in turn was replaced by Jane Powell.

    Allyson played a doctor in The Girl in White (1952), which lost revenue, and a nurse in Battle Circus (1953), a hit.[24] She started in Remains to Be Seen (1953) with Johnson, which was a flop. In May 1953, she and MGM agreed to part ways by mutual consent.[29]

    Post MGM[edit]

    In 1954, Allyson was in a huge Universal Pictures hit, The Glenn Miller Story, as well as another successful MGM film, Executive Suite. She also starred the Fox FilmWoman's World, which did less well.

    Allyson was teamed with Stewart again in Strategic Air Command (1955) at Paramount, another success.[30]

    She had a change of pace in The Shrike (1955) with José Ferrer at Universal; it flopped. More popular was The McConnell Story (1955) with Alan Ladd at Warner Bros.

    Allyson did some musical remakes of classic films, The Opposite Sex (1956) at MGM and You Can't Bmo harris bank hours near me Away from It (1956) at Columbia, which was directed by Powell.[15]

    In 1957, she signed with Universal and did two more remakes: Interlude, a drama for Douglas Sirk, and My Man Godfrey, a comedy with David Niven. She then made A Stranger in My Arms (1958) with Jeff Chandler. The box office failure of these films effectively ended her reign as an A-list movie star.[28]

    Television[edit]

    The DuPont Show with June Allyson (1959–60) ran for two seasons on CBS and was an attempt to use a high budget formula. She later called it "the hardest thing I ever did."[31] Her efforts were dismissed by an entertainment critic in the LA Examiner as "reaching down to the level of mag fiction."[32] However, TV Guide and other fan magazines such as TV Magazine considered Allyson's foray into television as revitalizing her fame and career for a younger audience, and remarked that her typecasting by the movie industry as the "girl next door" was a "waste and neglect of is the post office open today on black friday on its own doorstep."[33]

    She also appeared on shows community bank and trust carl junction Zane Grey Theater, The Dick Powell Theatre and Burke's Law before retiring for several years after the death of Powell in 1963.[15]

    Return to acting[edit]

    Allyson returned to acting with an appearance in The Name of the Game. In 1970, she briefly starred in Forty Carats on Broadway.

    Throughout the 1970s, she appeared regularly on television shows such as See the Man Run (1971), The Sixth Sense (1972), and Letters from Three Lovers (1973), as well as in the film They Only Kill Their Masters (1972).[15]

    Later appearances include Curse of the Black Widow (1977), Three on a Date (1978), Vega$ (1978), Blackout (1978), House Calls, The Kid with the Broken Halo (1982) Simon & Simon, The Love Boat, Hart to Hart, Murder, She Wrote, Misfits of Science, Crazy Like a Fox, and Airwolf. Her last appearance was in These Old Broads (2001).

    Personal life[edit]

    Marriages and children[edit]

    On her arrival in Hollywood, studio heads attempted to enhance the pairing of Van Johnson and Allyson by sending out the two contracted players on a series of "official dates", which were highly publicized and led to a public perception that a romance had been kindled.[34] Although dating David Rose, Peter Lawford, and John F. Kennedy, Allyson was actually being courted by Dick Powell, who was 13 years her senior and had been previously married to Mildred Maund and Joan Blondell.[35]

    On August 19, 1945, Allyson caused MGM studio chief Louis B. Mayer some consternation by marrying Dick Powell.[36] After defying him twice by refusing to stop seeing Powell, in a "tactical master stroke", she asked Mayer to give her away at the wedding.[37] He was so disarmed that he agreed but put Allyson on suspension anyway.[38]

    The Powells had two children, Pamela Allyson Powell[39] (adopted in 1948 through the Tennessee Children's Home Society in an adoption arranged by Georgia Tann) and Richard Powell, Jr., born December 24, 1950.[40]

    In the mid 1950s, Allyson reportedly had an affair with actor Alan Ladd.[41]

    In 1961, Allyson underwent a kidney operation and later, throat surgery, temporarily affecting her trademark raspy voice.[42] She filed for divorce that year, the reason being Powell's devotion to work. In February 1961, Allyson was awarded $2.5 million in settlement, along with custody of their children,[43] in an interlocutory divorce decree. However, before the divorce was finalized they reconciled[44] and remained married until his death on January 2, 1963. Later, Allyson reflected on how the loss of Powell affected her:

    I felt I had no props. I'm not really that wise to be able to live life alone and know where I'm going. I felt fear. I felt loneliness. I felt guilt and anger. I was afraid that I would not be able to stand on my own two feet. The loneliness made me feel empty. Then I had an awful guilt. I had always complained that Richard worked too hard, that he had no time for me. I gave him a bad time about this. When he left, I realized that he was working for our future and he wasn't there for me to say, "I'm us bank corporate travel card phone number I was angry because God had taken Richard away. God should have taken me. He should have left Richard, who had so much more to give.[41]

    This loss prompted Allyson to start drinking heavily. In 1963, she was going to elope with Powell's barber, Glenn Maxwell, but decided against it.[45] She and Maxwell would later get married and divorced, then married and divorced again.[41]

    She also went through a bitter court battle with her mother over the custody of the children. Reports at the time revealed that writer/director Dirk Summers, with whom Allyson was romantically involved from 1963 to 1975, was named legal guardian for Ricky and Pamela as a result of a court petition. Members of the nascent jet-set, Allyson and Summers were frequently seen in Cap d'Antibes, Madrid, Rome, and London. However, Summers refused to marry her and the relationship did not last.[46]

    During this time, Allyson struggled with alcoholism, which she overcame in the mid-1970s.

    In 1976, Allyson married David Ashrow, a dentist turned actor. The couple occasionally performed together in regional theater, and in the late 1970s and early 1980s, toured the US in the stageplayMy Daughter, Your Son. They also appeared on celebrity cruiseship tours on the Royal Viking Sky ocean liner in a program that highlighted Allyson's movie career.[47]

    Philanthropy[edit]

    After Dick Powell's death, Allyson committed herself to charitable work on his behalf, championing the importance of research in urological and gynecological diseases in seniors, and thus, chose to represent the Kimberly-Clark Corporation in commercials for adult incontinence products.

    Following a lifelong interest in health and medical research (Allyson had initially wanted to use her acting career to fund her own training as a doctor),[21] she was instrumental in establishing the June Allyson Foundation for Public Awareness and Medical Research.

    Allyson also financially supported her brother, Dr. Arthur Peters, through his medical training, and he went on to specialize in otolaryngology.[4]

    Politics[edit]

    Allyson was a staunch Republican and strong supporter of Richard Nixon.[48] Allyson also supported Barry Goldwater in the 1964 United States presidential election.[49]

    Later years[edit]

    Powell's wealth made it possible for Allyson effectively to retire from show business after his death, making only occasional appearances on talk and variety shows. Allyson returned to the Broadway stage in 1970 in the play Forty Carats[16] and later toured in a production of No, No, Nanette.

    Her autobiography, June Allyson by June Allyson (1982), received generally complimentary reviews due to its insider look at Hollywood in one of its golden ages. A more critical appraisal came from Janet Maslin at the New York Times in her review, "Hollywood Leaves Its Imprint on Its Chroniclers", who noted: "Miss Allyson presents herself as the same sunny, tomboyish figure she played on screen in Hollywood. like someone who has come to inhabit the very myths she helped to create on the screen."[7] Privately, Allyson admitted that her earlier screen portrayals had left her uneasy about the typecast "good wife" roles she had played.[50]

    As a personal friend of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, she was invited to many White House dinners, and in 1988, Reagan appointed her to the Federal Council on Aging. Allyson and her later husband, David Ashrow, actively supported fund-raising efforts for both the James Stewart and Judy Garland museums; both Stewart and Garland had been close friends.[7]

    In 1993, actor-turned-agent Marty Ingels publicly charged Allyson with not paying his large commission on the earlier deal on incontinence product advertising. Allyson denied owing any money, and Ashrow and she filed a lawsuit for slander and emotional distress, charging that Ingels was harassing and threatening them, stating Ingels made 138 phone calls during a single eight-hour period. Earlier that year, Ingels had pleaded no contest to making annoying phone calls.[51]

    In December 1993, Allyson christened the Holland America Maasdam, one of the flagships of the Holland America line. Although her heritage, like much of her personal story, was subject to different interpretations, Allyson always claimed to be proud of a Dutch ancestry.[4]

    Allyson made a special appearance in 1994 in That's Entertainment III, as one of the film's narrators. She spoke about MGM's golden era and introduced vintage film clips.

    In 1996, Allyson became the first recipient of the Harvey Award, presented by the James M. Stewart Museum Foundation, in recognition of her positive contributions to the world of entertainment.[52]

    Until 2003, Allyson remained busy touring the country making personal appearances, headlining celebrity cruises, and speaking on behalf of Kimberly-Clark, a long-time commercial interest.[47]

    The American Urogynecologic Society established the June Allyson Foundation in 1998 made possible by a grant from Kimberly-Clark. As the first celebrity to undertake the role of public spokesperson for promoting the use of the Depend undergarment, Allyson did "more than any other public figure to encourage and persuade people with incontinence to lead fuller and more active lives".[1]

    Death[edit]

    Following hip-replacement surgery in 2003, Allyson's health began to deteriorate. With her husband at her side, she died July 8, 2006, aged 88 at her home in Ojai, California. Her death was a result of pulmonary respiratory failure and acute bronchitis.[53] On her death, Kimberly-Clark Corporation contributed $25,000 to the June Allyson Foundation to support research advances in the care and treatment of women with urinary incontinence.[1]

    Awards and honors[edit]

    • 1951: won the Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture Actress-Musical/Comedy, for Too Young to Kiss.
    • 1954: awarded the Special Jury Prize for Ensemble Acting at the Venice Festival, for Executive Suite, in the same year that she was voted Most Popular Female Star by Photoplay magazine.
    • 1955: named the ninth most popular movie star in the annual Quigley Exhibitors Poll and the second most popular female star, after Grace Kelly.
    • 1960: received a motion pictures star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1537 Vine Street for her contributions to the film industry.[54]
    • 1985: received the Cannes Festival Distinguished Service Award.[47]
    • 2007: received a special tribute during the Academy Awards as part of the annual memorial tribute.

    Broadway credits[edit]

    I couldn't dance, and, Lord knows, I couldn't sing, but I got by somehow. Richard Rodgers was always keeping them from firing me.

    June Allyson, 1951, Interview[7]

    Date Production Role
    September 24, 1938 – January 7, 1939 Sing Out the NewsPerformer
    November 17, 1939 – January 6, 1940 Very Warm for MayJune
    April 4 – June 15, 1940 Higher and HigherHigher and Higher Specialty Girl
    October 30, 1940 – January 3, 1942 Panama HattieDancing Girl
    October 1, 1941 – July 4, 1942 Best Foot ForwardMinerva
    January 5, 1970 Forty CaratsAnn Stanley

    Filmography[edit]

    Box office ranking[edit]

    For a number of years exhibitors voted Allyson among the most popular stars in the country:

    • 1949 – 16th (US)
    • 1950 – 14th (US)
    • 1954 – 11th (US)
    • 1955 – 9th (US)
    • 1956 – 15th (US)
    • 1957 – 23rd (US)

    Radio appearances[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    Explanatory notes

    1. ^During her lifetime Allyson published an autobiography capio partners careers has led 1st kiss jean shorts much of the confusion as her recollections did not correspond to the actual record, starting with her birth date and her family background. MGM was partly to blame as the studio PR machine created a "goody two-shoes" image of a young ingenue, which required some imaginative tailoring of her age, family circumstances, and her famous "tree limb" story.
    2. ^The name "June Allyson" has been attributed to three different sources and June herself had a different memory of from where it came, but the use of a nickname and stage name had already begun in her teen years. On the Larry King interview, her recollection was that Broadway producer George Abbott had given her the name, while other sources have her first stage choreographer calling her that in exasperation, as he could not be bothered to remember her real one; at least that was the tale in her book. Probably, it made sense to her, as she liked "Allison", her brother's name, and simply tacked "June" onto it, and was reportedly using it before her Broadway debut.

    Citations

    1. ^ abc"KimberlyClark Corporation Honors June Allyson And Her Humanitarian Contributions: Long-Time Depend Brand Spokesperson Educated Millions on Incontinence" (Press release). Kimberly-Clark Corporation. July 11, 2006. Retrieved May 12, 2012.
    2. ^O'Reilly, Terry (June 8, 2017). "Now Splinter Free: How Marketing Broke Taboos". CBC Radio One. Pirate Radio. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
    3. ^ abAncestry.com according to the 1920 U.S. census
    4. ^ abc"June Allyson Discusses Her Career."CNN Larry King Live. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
    5. ^Luther, Claudia. "Obituaries: Film Sweetheart June Allyson Dies at 88."zap2it.com, Special to the Los Angeles Times, July 11, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
    6. ^ abcdeParish and Pitts 2003, p. 1.
    7. ^ abcdeHarmetz, Aljean. "June Allyson, Adoring Wife in MGM Films, Is Dead at 88."The New York Times, July 11, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
    8. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 8.
    9. ^Thomas, Bob (July 11, 2006). "June Allyson, Actress: 1917–2006". The Globe and Mail. p. S.7.
    10. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 7.
    11. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 10, 36.
    12. ^Parish and Pitts 2003, pp. 1, 3.
    13. ^ abcParish and Pitts 2003, p. 3.
    14. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 11.
    15. ^ abcdeBergan, Ronald (July 12, 2006). "Obituary: June Allyson: Actor whose sunny style and quivering lip embodied a simpler age". The Guardian. p. 36.
    16. ^ ab"June Allyson."Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
    17. ^ abBasinger 2007, p. 482.
    18. ^Hirschhorn 1991, p. 224.
    19. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 22–23.
    20. ^Fordin 1996, p. 67.
    21. ^ abAllyson, June and Frances Spatz Leighton. June Allyson by June Allyson. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1982. ISBN 0-399-12726-7
    22. ^"Milner 1998, p. 155".
    23. ^Davis 2001, p. 34.
    24. ^ abParish and Pitts 2003, p. 4.
    25. ^ abcdSchallert, Edwin (November 7, 1948). "June Allyson's Happy Dreams Coming True: Better Roles Now June Allyson's". Los Angeles Times. p. D1.
    26. ^Schallert, Edwin (September 30, 1945). "Respite Now Goal of June Allyson: Pause in Arduous Screen Work Sought by Dick Powell's Bride Respite Now Forms June Allyson Goal". Los Angeles Times. p. B1.
    27. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, p. 37.
    28. ^ abcMeryle Secrest (August 6, 1971). "June Allyson: Still June Allyson". The Washington Post, Times Herald. p. B2.
    29. ^"June Allyson Leaves Metro". New York Times. May 2, 1953. p. 12.
    30. ^"June Allyson TV interview". The Dick Cavett Show. 1982. PBS.
    31. ^Smith, Cecil (August 21, 1960). "June Allyson: Subdeb Sex: June Allyson Runs Own Show as Star and Emcee". Los Angeles Times. p. A3.
    32. ^Becker 2009, pp. 116–117.
    33. ^Becker 2009, p. 33.
    34. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 51–53.
    35. ^Kennedy 2007, p. 130.
    36. ^Wayne 2002, p. 392.
    37. ^Eyman 2005, p. 290.
    38. ^Wayne 2006, p. 46.
    39. ^Smith, Stephen (July 16, 2007). "Actress June Allyson Dies at 88". CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
    40. ^Allyson and Leighton 1982, pp. 30–31
    41. ^ abcChristy, Marian (June 20, 1982). "Conversations by Marian Christy; Woman Behind the June Myth". Boston Globe (1st ed.). p. 1.
    42. ^Parish and Pitts 2003, p. 5.
    43. ^"Divorce Granted to June Allyson from Dick Powell: June Allyson Gets a Tearful Divorce". Chicago Daily Tribune. February 1, 1961. p. A5.
    44. ^"Dick Powell, June Allyson Drop Plans for Divorce". Columbia Record (Columbia, South Carolina). January 4, 1962. p. A15.
    45. ^"With Dick Powell's Barber: June Allyson Lawyer Bars Her Elopement". Los Angeles Times. August 4, 1963. p. f1.
    46. ^Carroll, Harrison. "June Allyson & Dirk Summers Marriage." Herald Examiner, Vol. XCV, Issue 1st kiss jean shorts, November 4, 1965, p. 1.
    47. ^ abc"Biography: June Allyson." juneallyson.com. Retrieved October first national bank howell mi 48843, 2010.
    48. ^Doyle, Jack (March 11, 2009). "1968 Presidential Racd: Republicans". PopHistoryDig.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
    49. ^Critchlow, Donald T. (2013). When Hollywood Was Right: How Movie Stars, Studio Moguls, and Big Business Remade American Politics. ISBN .
    50. ^Weil, Martin. "Perky Actress June Allyson, 88."The Washington Post, July 11, 2006, p. B06. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
    51. ^"Allyson Lawsuit Accuses Marty Ingels of Slander". Deseret News. August 30, 1993. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
    52. ^"The Jimmy Stewart Museum."Archived March 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine jimmy.org.
    53. ^Mormon 2007, p. 65.
    54. ^"Walk of Fame Stars: June Allyson". walkoffame.com. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. February 8, 1960. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
    55. ^Kirby, Walter (February 24, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the The bancorp bank chime reviews. The Decatur Daily Review. p. 38. Retrieved May 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.open access
    56. ^Kirby, Walter (May 17, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.open access

    Bibliography

    • Allyson, June. June Allyson's Feeling Great: A Daily Dozen Exercises for Creative Aging. New York: Da Capo Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-88496-257-1.
    • Basinger, Jeanine. The Star Machine. New York: Knopf, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4000-4130-5.
    • Becker, Christine. It's the Pictures That Got Small: Hollywood Film Stars on 1950s Television (Wesleyan Film). Indianapolis, Indiana: Wesleyan, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8195-6894-6.
    • Davis, Ronald L. Van Johnson: MGM's Golden Boy (Hollywood Legends Series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2001. ISBN 978-1-57806-377-2.
    • Eyman, Scott. Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Meyer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7432-0481-1.
    • Fordin, Hugh. M-G-M's Greatest Musicals. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-306-80730-5.
    • Hirschhorn, Clive. The Hollywood Musical. London: Pyramid Books, 1991, first edition 1981. ISBN 978-1-85510-080-0.
    • Kennedy, Matthew. Joan Blondell: A Life between Takes (Hollywood Legends Series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2007. ISBN 978-1-57806-961-3.
    • Milner, Jay Dunston. Confessions of a Maddog: A Romp through the High-flying Texas Music and Literary Era of the Fifties to the Seventies. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1998. ISBN 978-1-57441-050-1.
    • Mormon, Robert. Demises of the Distinguished. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4343-1546-5.
    • Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who Act and Actors who can Sing. London: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 978-0-415-94332-1.
    • Wayne, Jane Ellen. The Golden Girls of MGM: Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Lana Turner, Judy Garland, Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly and Others. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7867-1117-8.
    • Wayne, Jane Ellen. The Leading Men of MGM. New York: Da Capo Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7867-1768-2.

    External links[edit]

    Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Allyson

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