north south america map

These maps were specifically created to go along with Ohio's new fifth grade Social Studies content statements. Download scientific diagram | North and South America at two geologic times. The maps show the outlines of North America and South America at (a) 12-10 Mya. mal. For North America, the authenticity of the so-called 'Vinland' map, reputedly of c.1440 AD, is still debatable.2 So far as South America is.

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How to Draw a Map of North \u0026 South America

Editable North America & South America Map PowerPoint Template

The Editable North America & South America Map PowerPoint Template presents geographic area of two continents. North and South America are considered two separate continents in 7-continent model of the world. The narrow land strip known as Isthmus of Panama lies between North America and South America. The continental map of Americas is an editable silhouette template for PowerPoint and Google Slides presentations. These are a set of independent PowerPoint shapes bundled together to display landmass of North and South America. Each editable unit representing national borders of all countries. Users can easily create a map presentation about different focused areas by resizing and zooming in on countries. The vector-based silhouette shapes will retain a high-quality resolution when resized.

The North America continent includes the United States of America, Canada, Mexico, Greenland, and all countries of Central America and Caribbean. The PowerPoint map template contains editable segments of all these countries. Similarly, the portion of map illustrating South America includes geographical boarders of Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Colombia, etc. The map of North and South America can be used to prepare presentations in Microsoft PowerPoint & Google Slides, including reports and presentation dashboards.

5-Slide PowerPoint templates of editable map offers five north south america map designs for North America & South America geographic Map. These slides have various location marker north south america map, roadmap routes, and color-coded sections. Users can choose desired map design for range of presentation ideas. For example, travels and tours, business global reach regions, political outline maps, regional statistics, and more. Editable North America & South America Map PowerPoint Template can be customized according to presentation theme. PowerPoint formatting options lets users personalize all editable contents. You can download more map PowerPoint templates of countries, continents, and world from SlideModel Maps colletion.

Источник: https://slidemodel.com/templates/editable-north-america-south-america-map-powerpoint-template/

What Did the Continents Look Like Millions of Years Ago?

Geoff Manaugh: When I first discovered your maps showing the gradual tectonic relocation of the continents over hundreds of millions of years, I thought this was exactly what geologists should be doing: offering clear, step-by-step visual narratives of the evolution of the Earth’s surface so that people can better understand the planet we live on. What inspired you to make the maps, and how did you first got started with them?

Ronald Blakey: Well, the very first maps I made were in conjunction with what are todays 30 year fixed mortgage rates doctoral thesis, back in the early 1970s. Those were made with pen and ink. I made sketches to show what the paleogeography would have looked like for the specific formation I was studying with my doctorate. Three or four of those maps went into the thesis, which was then published by the Utah Geologic Survey. I’ve also done a number of papers over the years where I’ve made sketches.

But I was late getting into the computer. Basically, during my graduate work I never used a computer for anything. I kind of resisted it, because, for the kind of work I was doing, I just didn’t see a need for it—I didn’t do quantifiable kinds of things. Then, of course, along comes email and the internet. I actually forget when North south america map first started with Photoshop—probably in the mid-1990s. When I found that, I just thought, Wow; the power of this is incredible. I quickly learned how to use the cloning tool, so that I could clone modern topography onto ancient maps, and that made things even simpler yet.

Another thing I started doing was putting these maps into presentations. There were something like five different programs back there, in the late ‘90s, but the only one that survived was PowerPoint—which is too bad, because it was far from the best of the programs. I was using a program called Astound, which was far superior, particularly in the transitions between screens. I could do simple animations. I could make the tectonic plates move, create mountain belts, and so forth.

I retired in May of 2009, but all of my early maps are now online. With each generation of maps that I’ve done, there has been a noted improvement over earlier maps. I find new techniques and, when you work with Photoshop as much as I do, you learn new ideas and you find ways to make things that were a little clumsy look more smooth.

Manaugh: Where do the data come from?

Blakey: It comes from various publications. You can get a publication and have that PDF open, showing what something looked like in the past, and work from that. Usually, what I’m working from are fairly simple sketches published in the literature. They’ll show a subduction zone and a series of violent arcs, or a collision zone. What I do is take this information and make it more pictorial.

If you create a series of maps in sequence, you can create them in such a way that certain geologic events, from one time slice to the next, to the next, to the next, will blend. It depends a lot on the scale of what you’re trying to show—the whole world versus just four or five states in the West.

Now, throughout the years from, let’s say, 2004 until I retired in 2009, I kept improving the website. I envisioned most of this as educational material, and I didn’t pay much attention to who used it, how they used it, and so forth. But, then, shortly before I retired, various book companies and museums—and, most recently, oil companies—have approached me. So I started selling these and I tried very diligently not to allow this to overlap with what I was doing for my teaching and my research at the University.

In the following long sequence of images, we see the evolution of the West Coast of North America, its state boundaries ghosted in for reference. Sea levels rise and fall; island chains emerge and collide; mountains form; inland seas proliferate and drain; north south america map, eventually, modern-day California, Vancouver Island, and the Baja Peninsula take shape, among other recognizable features. The time frame represented by these images is approximately 500 million years. All maps by Ron Blakey.

Nicola Twilley: What do the oil companies want them for?

Blakey: They’re my biggest customers now. Usually, the geologists at oil companies are working with people who know either much less geology than they do or, in some cases, almost no geology at all, yet they’re trying to convince these people that this is where they need to explore, or this is what they need to do next.

They find these maps very useful to show what the Devonian of North Dakota looked like, for example, which is a hot spot right now, with all the shales that they’re developing in the Williston Basin. What they like is that I show what the area might have really looked like. This helps, particularly with people who have only a modest understanding of geology, particularly the geologic past.

Manaugh: What have been some of the most difficult regions or geological eras to map?

Blakey: The most difficult thing to depict is back in the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic. Large areas of the continent were flooded, deep into the interior.

During certain periods, like the Ordovician, the Devonian, and parts of the Jurassic—especially the Cretaceous—as much as two-thirds of the continents were underwater. But they’re still continents; they’re still continental crusts. They’re not oceans. The sea level was just high enough, with respect to where the landscape was at the time, that the area was flooded. Of course, this is a concept that non-geologists really have problems with, because they don’t understand the processes of how continents get uplifted and subside and erode and so forth, but this is one of the concepts that my maps show quite nicely: the seas coming in and retreating.

But it’s very difficult—I mean, there is no modern analog for a seaway that stretched from the Mackenzie River Delta in Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and that was 400 miles wide. There’s nothing like that on Earth today. But the styles of mountains have not dramatically changed over the last probably two billion years—maybe even longer than that. I don’t go back that far—I tend to stick with the last 600 million years or so—but the styles of mountains haven’t changed. The nature of island arcs hasn’t changed, as far as we know.

What has changed is the amount of vegetation on the landscape. My maps that are in the early part of the Paleozoic—the Cambrian and the Ordovician early part of the Silurian—tend to be drab-colored. Then, in the late Silurian and in the Devonian, when the land plants developed, I start bringing vegetation colors in. I try to show the broad patterns of climate. Not in detail, of course—there’s a lot of controversy about certain paleoclimates. But, basically, paleoclimates follow the same kinds of regimens that the modern climates are following: where the oceans are, where the equator is, where the mountain ranges are, and so forth.

That means you can make broad predictions about what a paleoclimate would have been based on its relationship to the equator or based on the presence or absence of nearby mountains. I use these kinds of principles to show more arid areas versus more humid areas.

The next three sequences show the evolution of the Earth's surface in reverse, from the present day to, at the very bottom, 600 million years ago, when nearly all of the planet's landmasses were joined together in the Antarctic. The first sequence shows roughly 90 million years of backward evolution, the continents pulling apart from one another and beginning a slow drift south. They were mapped using the Mollweide projection, and, in all cases, are by Ron Blakey.

Twilley: And you paint the arid area based on a contemporary analog?

Blakey: Right. I know the modern world reasonably well and I’ll choose something today that might have matched the texture and aridity of that older landscape.

I use a program called GeoMapApp that gives me digital elevation maps for anywhere in the world. Most recently, they have coupled it with what they call the “Blue Marble.” NASA has stitched together a bunch of satellite photos of the world in such a way that you can’t tell where one series of photos come in or another. It’s a fairly true-color representation of what Earth would look like from space. So this Blue Marble is coupled with the GeoMapApp’s digital elevation topography; you put the Blue Marble over it, and you use a north south america map slider to let the topography show through, and it gives you a fairly realistic looking picture of what you’re looking for.

For example, if I’m working with a mountain what are todays 30 year fixed mortgage rates in the southern Appalachians for a Devonian map—well, the southern Appalachians, during the Devonian, were probably far enough away from the equator that it was in the arid belt. There are some indications of that, as well—salt deposits in the Michigan Basin and in parts of New York and so forth. Plus, there are red-colored sediments, which don’t prove but tend to indicate arid environments. This combination tells me that this part of the world was fairly arid. So I’m going to places like modern Afghanistan, extreme western China, northern Turkey, or other places where there are somewhat arid climates with mountain belts today. Then I clone the mountains from there and put them in the map.

But you have to know the geologic background. You have to know how the mountains were formed, what the grain of the mountains was. That’s not always easy, although there are ways of doing it. To know the grain of the mountains, you need to know where the hinterland and the center of the mountains were. You need to know where the foreland area is, so that you can show the different styles of mountains. You have to move from foreland areas—which tends to be a series of parallel ridges, usually much lower than the hinterlands—to the center and beyond.

I use this kind of information to pick the right kind of modern mountain to put back in the Devonian, based on what that Devonian landscape probably had a good chance of looking like. Do we know for certain? Of course not. We weren’t around in the Devonian. But we have a good rock record and we have a lot north south america map information; so we use that information and, then, voilà.

To give another example, let’s look at the Devonian period of the East Coast. The big European continent that we call Baltica collided with Greenland and a series of micro-continents collided further south, all the way down at least as far as New Jersey, if not down as far the Carolinas. We know that there are places on Earth today where these same kinds of collisions are taking place—in the Alps and Mediterranean region, and the Caucasus region, and so forth.

We can use the concept that, if two plates are colliding today to produce the Caucasus mountains, and if we look at the style of mountains that the Caucasus are, then it’s reasonable to think that, where Greenland and Baltica collided in the Silurian and the Devonian, the mountains would have had a similar style. So we can map that.

This second sequence shows the continents drifting apart, in reverse, from 105 million years ago to 240 million years ago. They were mapped using the Mollweide projection, and, in all cases, are by Ron Blakey.

Manaugh: That collision alone—Baltica and Greenland—sounds like something that would be extremely difficult to map.

Blakey: Absolutely. And it’s not a one-to-one relationship. You have to look at the whole pattern of how the plates collided, how big the plates were, and so forth.

Then there’s the question of the different histories of particular plates. So, for example, most of Scotland started out as North America. Then, when all the continents collided to form Pangaea, the first collisions took place in the Silurian-Devonian and the final collisions took place in the Pennsylvanian-Permian. By, say, 250 million years ago, most of the continents were together. Then, when they started to split apart in the Triassic and Jurassic—especially in the Triassic and Cretaceous—the split occurred in such a way that what had been part of North America was actually captured, if you will, by Europe and taken over to become the British Isles.

Scotland and at least the northern half of Ireland were captured and began to drift with Europe. On the other hand, North America picked up Florida—which used to be part of Gondwana—and so forth.

One of the things that is interesting is the way that, when mountains come together and then finally break up, they usually don’t break up the same way that they came together. Sometimes they do, but it has to do with weaknesses, stress patterns, and things like this. Obviously, all time is extremely relative, but mountains don’t last that long. A given mountain range that’s been formed by a simple collision—not that there’s any such thing as a simple collision—once that collision is over with, 40 or 50 million years after that event, there is only low-lying landscape. It may have even north south america map split apart already into a new ocean basin.

But here’s the important part: The structure that was created by that collision is still there, even though the mountains have been worn down. It’s like when you cut a piece of wood: The grain is still inherited from when that tree grew. The pattern of the grain still shows where the branches were, and the direction of the tree’s growth in response to wind and sun and its neighbors. You can’t reconstruct the tree exactly from its grain, but, if you’re an expert with wood, you should be able to look and say: Here are the tree rings, and here’s a year where the tree grew fast, here’s a year where the tree grew slow, here’s where the tree grew branches, etc.

In a sense, as geologists, how bad is mozzarella cheese for you doing the same things with rock structure. We can tell by the pattern of how the rocks are deformed which direction the forces came from. With mountains, you can tell the angle at which the plates collided. It’s usually very oblique. What that tends to do is complicate the geologic structure, because you not only get things moving one way, but you get things dragging the other way, as well. But we can usually tell the angle at which the plates hit.

Then, in many cases, based upon the nature of how the crust has been deformed and stacked up, we can tell the severity of the mountain range. It doesn’t necessarily mean that we can say, “Oh, this structure would have been a twenty-thousand-foot high mountain range.” It’s not that simple at all, not least of which because rocks can deform pretty severely without making towering mountains.

This final of the three global sequences shows the continents drifting apart, in reverse, from 260 million years ago to 600 million years ago. There was still nearly 4 billion years of tectonic evolution prior to where these maps begin. They were mapped using the Mollweide projection, and, in all cases, are by Ron Blakey.

Manaugh: Are you able to project these same tectonic movements and geological processes into the future and show what the Earth might look like in, say, 250 million years?

Blakey: I’ve had a number of people ask me about that, so I did make some global maps. I think I made six of them at about 50-million-year intervals. For the 15 to 100-million-year range, I think you can say they are fairly realistic. But, once you get much past 75 to 100 million years, it starts to get really, really speculative. The plates do strange things. I’ll give you just a couple of quick examples.

The Atlantic Ocean opened in the beginning of the Jurassic. The actual opening probably started off the coasts of roughly what is now Connecticut down to the Carolinas. That’s where the first opening started. So the central part of the Atlantic was the first part to open up. It opened up reasonably simply—but, again, I’m using the word simple with caution here.

The North Atlantic, meanwhile, didn’t open up until about 60 to 50 million years ago. When it opened up, it did a bunch of strange things. The first opening took place between Britain and an offshore bank that’s mostly submerged, called Rockall. Rockall is out in the Atlantic Ocean, northwest of Ireland—near Iceland—but it’s continental crust. That splitting process went on for, let’s say, 10 million years or so—I’m just going to talk in broad terms—as the ocean started opening up.

Then the whole thing jumped. A second opening began over between Greenland and North America, as Greenland and North America began to separate off. That lasted for a good 40 or 50 million years. That’s where you now get the Labrador Sea; that is actual ocean crust. So that was the Atlantic Ocean for 30 or 40 million years—but then it jumped again, this time over between Greenland and what is now the west coast of Europe. It started opening up over there, before it jumped yet again. There’s an island in the middle of the North Atlantic, way the heck up there, called Jan Mayen. At one time, it was actually part of Greenland. The Atlantic opened between it and Greenland and then shifted to the other side and made its final opening.

The following two sequences show the evolution of Europe from an Antarctic archipelago to a tropical island chain to the present-day Europe we know and recognize. The first sequence starts roughly 450 million years ago and continues to the Jurassic, 200 million years ago. All maps by Ron Blakey.

So it’s very complicated. And that’s just the Atlantic Ocean.

The Northern Atlantic took at least five different paths before the final path was established, and it’s all still changing. In fact, the South Atlantic is actually even worse; it’s an even bigger mess. You’ve got multiple openings between southwest Africa and Argentina, plus Antarctica was up in there before it pulled away to the south.

These complications are what makes this stuff so interesting. If we look at events that we can understand pretty well over the last, let’s say, 150 or 200 million years of time—where we have a good indication of where the oceans were because we still have ocean crusts of that age—then we can extrapolate from that back to past times when oceans were created and destroyed. We can follow the rules that are going on today to see all of the oddities and the exceptions and so forth.

These are the kinds of things I try to keep track of when I’m making these maps. I’m always asking: What do we know? Was it a simple pull-apart process? There are examples where continents started to split across from one another, then came back together, then re-split in a different spot later on. That’s not just speculation—there is geologic evidence for this in the rock record.

For instance, the one continent that does not seem to be moving at all right now, relative to anything else, is Antarctica. It seems to be really fixed on the South Pole. That’s why some people think that everything will actually coagulate back towards the South Pole.

So, when it comes to extrapolating future geologies, things become very complicated very quickly. If you start thinking about the behavior of the north Atlantic, creating a projection based on what’s going on today seems, at first, like a fairly simple chore. North America is going on a northwesterly path at only one or two centimeters a year. Europe is moving away, at almost a right angle, at about another centimeter a year. So the Atlantic is only opening at three centimeters a year; it’s one of the slowest-opening oceans right now.

Okay, fine—but what else is frost bank online access The Caribbean is pushing up into the Atlantic and, off South America, there is the Scotia Arc. Both of those are growing. They’ve also identified what looks like a new island arc off the western Mediterranean region; that eventually would start to close the Atlantic in that area. Now you start to speculate: Well, these arcs will start to grow, and they’ll start to eat into the oceans, and subduct the crusts, and so forth.

Again, for the first 50, 75, or even 100 million years, you can say that these particular movements are fairly likely. But, once you get past that, you can still use geologic principles, but you’re just speculating as to which way the continents are going to go.

For instance, the one continent that does not seem to be moving at all right now, relative to anything else, is Antarctica. It seems to be really fixed on the South Pole. That’s why some people think that everything will actually coagulate back towards the South Pole. However, there are also a bunch of subduction zones today along southern Asia, and those are pretty strong subduction zones. Those are the ones that created the big tsunami, and all the earthquakes off of Indonesia and so forth. Eventually, those could pull either parts of Antarctica or all of Antarctica up toward them.

But I’m more interested in reconstructing the past than I am the future, so I’ve only played around with those five or six maps.

This second sequence, showing the next phase in the evolution of Europe, begins approximately 150 million years ago and extends to the present day. All maps by Ron Blakey.

Manaugh: To ground things a bit, we’re having this conversation in Flagstaff, on the Colorado Plateau, which seems like a great place to teach geology. I wonder whether there might be another Colorado Plateau, so to speak, elsewhere in the world—something geologically similar to the extraordinary landscapes we see here that just hasn’t had the chance to emerge. Maybe the tectonics aren’t right, and it’s still just a crack, rather than a canyon, or maybe it’s covered in vegetation or ice so we can’t see it yet. Conversely, I’m curious if you might have found evidence of other great geological districts in the Earth’s past—lost Grand Canyons, north south america map Arches National Parks—that have been lost to time. How could we detect those, and where are they?

Blakey: This is indeed a great place to teach geology. It’s a great place to live.

As for Colorado Plateau analogs—it’s an interesting question. There’s an area in South America that I’d say is fairly similar. It’s got a couple of famous national parks that I can't remember the name of. It’s a smaller version, but it’s very similar to the Colorado Plateau. It’s between the Andes and the Amazon basin, part of the general pampas region there, of South America. It even has similarly aged rocks. Parts of northern Africa would also be similar.

But you have to look at all the characteristics of the Plateau. No. 1: The rocks are flat. No. 2: The rocks have been uplifted. No. 3: The rocks are dissected by a major river system. No. 4: It’s a semi-arid climate. There are probably five or six defining characteristics in total, and I’ve heard many people say that there is no other place else on Earth that has all those characteristics in exactly the same way. But I went to an area in eastern Mauritania many years ago, where, for all the world, it looked like the Grand Canyon. It wasn’t as colorful, but it was a big, deep canyon.

In fact, the Appalachian Plateau would be somewhat similar, except it’s in a humid climate, which means the land has been shaped and formed differently. But the Appalachian plateau has flat-lying rocks; it’s dissected by some major rivers; it’s experienced uplift; and so forth.

The next two sequences of images, followed from left to right, top to bottom, illustrate the gradual evolution of the Colorado Plateau, where, in its modern-day incarnation, this interview with Ron Blakey took place (specifically, in Flagstaff, Arizona). The earliest map included here depicts the Proterozoic; the first sequence ends in the Triassic. All maps by Ron Blakey.

Twilley: I’m interested in the representational challenges you face when you decide to make a map, and, specifically, when you’re in Photoshop, what your most-used tools might be. I thought it was fascinating when you said that the cloning tool really changed how you make geological maps. What other techniques are important to you, in order to represent geological histories?

Blakey: Oh, the cloning tool is the most important, by far—at least when I’m actually painting. Of course, I use the outline tool to select areas, but, when I’m actually painting, it would be impossible to paint these different maps pixel by pixel. I couldn’t do it. Occasionally, I will actually hand-draw some things in the flatlands, where I want to put a river system, for example, but, at least for mountains and rugged terrain, I clone everything.

Some times, I’ll cut and paste. I’ll select an area in the GeoMapApp, I save it as a JPEG, and then I can select it and copy it and paste it in, and I can rotate and deform it a little bit. Are you familiar with the warp tool in Photoshop? I use that a lot, because you can change the shape of mountains a little. If you do it too dramatically, it really looks flaky. But, if you do it right, it still looks pretty realistic.

This second sequence, also showing the evolution of the Colorado Plateau, begins with the Triassic and ends roughly 5 million years ago—basically the present day, in geological terms. All maps by Ron Blakey.

Twilley: And do you have certain filters you rely on for particular geological effects?

Blakey: A little bit. I like to use the craquelure filter. It actually gives you little bumps and valleys and so forth. I use that especially for continental margins. Continental margins are anything but regular slopes, going down to the abyssal depths. They’re very irregular. There are landslides and all kinds of things going on there at the margins, so I add a little texture with craquelure.

It can be north south america map to use, though, and it doesn’t work at really high resolutions—so, what I actually have to do some times, is that I will actually copy a part of my north south america map, take it out, make it smaller, do the craquelure on it, and then blow it back up and paste it in again.

Dee Blakey, Ron's Wife: I think the other reason that he can do what he does is that he paints. That’s one of his paintings, that one over there. (Gestures above fireplace.)

Blakey: Well, I guess I should have said that right away, when you asked me why I got interested in this, because I am interested in the artistic aspect of geology. The artistic aspect of science, in general, but especially geology. Astronomy, for example, would be another field where artistic visualizations are useful—any time you’re trying to show things that can’t easily be visualized with something comparable here on present-day planet Earth, you have to use an artistic interpretation.

Anyway, I can’t explain it, but I understand color pretty well. I use the hue-saturation tool a lot. I’ll select an area and then I’ll feather it, let’s say, because you don’t want the edges to be sharp. I’ll feather it by 30, 40, 50 pixels. Then I'll take the slider for hue saturation, where, if you go to the left, you make things redder and, if you go to the right, you make things greener. If I’ve got a landscape that looks a little too humid, I’ll just slide it slightly to the left to make it a bit redder. You can also change the lightness and darkness when you do that. There’s also regular saturation. By killing the saturation, you can really kill the nature of a landscape quite a bit.

And I use hue saturation a lot. That took me a long time to master, because it’s really easy to screw things up with that tool. You start sliding things a little too far and, whoa—wait a minute! All of a sudden, you’ve got purple mountains.

Источник: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/09/what-did-the-continents-look-like-millions-of-years-ago/279892/
1786 - A new map of the whole continent of America - divided into North and South and West Indies where they are exactly Described in United States of North America as well as the Several European Possessions according to the Preliminaries of Peace signed at Versailles, Jan 20, 1783

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Subject

1786 map divided into the North and South America, West Indies that reflected the political boundaries along with a listing of United States and several European possessions.

Description

An early map that depicted both the North and South Americans along with the West Indies. It provides a glaring contrast between the known and unknown regions, with the Eastern parts of North America quite well understood, while the mythical River of the West was still shown as a continuous water course from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The map reflects the United States following the American Revolutionary War and included the addition of Spanish discoveries north of Baja California in what has been described as “fantastically detailed” topographical and geographical features. Included on this map is the often-disputed Chinese colony, Fou Sang, thought to have been settled c. 220 BC. The depiction of South America was largely based in part on the then recently published Juan de la Cruz Cano y Olmedilla’s 1775 map of South America, Mapa Geográfico De America Meridional.” The map includes an inset of northern Canada depicting the Hudson and Baffin Bays. It also includes a listing of United States and European political land holdings.

Source

Archivo General Militar de Madrid, Spain

Disciplines

Arts and Humanities

The Americas

What is this?

When you color a country with a pattern (dots, stripes, etc.), the pattern by default gets scaled (resized) to fit its size. You can change this to use nonscaling patterns that look the same on all countries. Examples:

What to choose?

It can depend on the map or the patterns/colors you select, but generally:

  • Scaling patterns (default) are better for maps with small subdivisions, like the detailed maps or the US counties map.
  • Scaling patterns (default) are better for zoomed in areas.
  • Nonscaling patterns can look better for maps with larger subdivisions, like the simple World map or the US states map.
  • Nonscaling patterns can look better when you have a small number of patterns in your map, as they stand out more.

In any case, you can switch this setting on/off as many times as you need to see the difference live on your map. More details on the blog.

Источник: https://mapchart.net/americas.html
Social and Behavioral Sciences

Recommended Citation

"1786 - A new map of the whole continent of America - divided into North and South and West Indies where they are exactly Described in United States of North America as well as the Several European Possessions according to the Preliminaries of Peace signed at Versailles, Jan 20, 1783" (2017). Pre-1824 Maps. 30.
https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/hornbeck_spa_1_a/30

Источник: https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/hornbeck_spa_1_a/30/

What Is Latin America? Definition and List of Countries

Latin America is a region of the world that spans two continents, North America (including Central America and the Caribbean) and South America. It includes19 sovereign nations and one non-independent territory, Puerto Rico. Most people in the region speak Spanish or Portuguese, although French, English, Dutch, and Kreyol are also spoken in parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America.

By and large, the countries in Latin America are still considered "developing" or "emerging" nations, with Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina comprising the largest economies. Latin America's population has a high proportion of mixed-race people due to its colonial history and encounters between Europeans, indigenous people, and Africans. In addition, its population is a result of an unprecedented history of transcontinental migration: after 1492, 60 million Europeans, 11 million Africans, and 5 million Asians arrived in the Americas.

Key Takeaways: What Is Latin America

  • Latin America spans two continents, North America (including Central America and the Caribbean) and South America.
  • Latin America includes 19sovereign nations and one dependent territory, Puerto Rico.
  • Most people in the region speak Spanish or Portuguese.

Latin America Definition

Latin America is a region that is difficult to define. It is sometimes considered a geographic region that includes the entire Caribbean, i.e., all Western Hemisphere countries south of the United States, regardless of language spoken. It is defined by others as a region where a Romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, or French) predominates, or as the countries with a history of Iberian (Spanish and Portuguese) colonialism.

The most limited definition, and the one utilized in this article, defines Latin America as countries where Spanish or Portuguese is currently the dominant language. Thus, not included are the islands of Haiti and the French Caribbean, the Anglophone Caribbean (including Jamaica and Trinidad), the mainland English-speaking countries of Belize and Guyana, and the Dutch-speaking countries of the hemisphere (Suriname, Aruba, and the Netherland Antilles).

Brief History

Before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, Latin America had been settled for millennia by a wide range of indigenous groups, some of whom (Aztecs, Mayans, Incas) boasted advanced civilizations. The Spanish were the first Europeans to arrive in the Americas, followed soon after by the Portuguese, who colonized Brazil. Landing first in the Caribbean, the Spanish soon expanded their explorations and conquest to Central America, Mexico, and South America.

The majority of Latin America gained independence from Spain between 1810 and 1825, with Brazil gaining independence from Portugal in 1825. Of Spain's two remaining colonies, Cuba gained its independence in 1898, at which time Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the U.S. in the Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War.

Latin American Countries

Latin America is divided up into several regions: North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.

North America

Despite being the north south america map North American country that is part of Latin America, Mexico is one of the region's largest and most important nations. Mexico is the largest source not only of Latin American immigrants, but of all immigrants to the U.S.

Central America

Central America is comprised of seven countries, six of which are Spanish-speaking.

Costa Rica is located between Nicaragua and Panama. It is one of the most stable countries in Central America, primarily because it has been able to capitalize on its rich topography for its ecotourism industry.

El Salvador is the smallest but most densely populated country in Central America. Along with Guatemala and Honduras, the country belongs to the maligned "Northern Triangle," known for its violence and crime that is in large part a result of the civil wars of the 1980s.

Central America's most populous country by far, as well as its most linguistically diverse, is Guatemala, known for the richness of its Mayan culture. Around 40% of the population speaks an indigenous language as their mother tongue.

Honduras borders Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. It is sadly known as one of Latin America's poorest (66% of people live in poverty) and most violent countries.

Central America's largest country in terms of surface area is Nicaragua. It is also the poorestcountry in Central America and the second poorest in the region.

Panama, the southernmost country in Central America, has historically had a very close relationship with the U.S., particularly because of the history of the Panama Canal.

South America

South America is home to 12 independent nations, 10 of which are Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking.

Argentina is South America's second largest and third most populous country, after Brazil and Colombia. It's also Latin America's second biggest economy.

Bolivia is one of South America's highland countries, known for its mountainous geography. It has a relatively large indigenous population, specifically Aymara and Quechua speakers.

South America's largest country in both population and physical size, Brazil is also one of the world's most dominant economies. It covers almost half the land mass of South America and is home to the Amazon Rainforest.

Known for its prosperity relative to the rest of Latin America, Chile also has a whiter population with a smaller proportion of racially mixed people than most of the region.

Colombia is South America's second largest nation, and third largest in all of Latin America. The country is rich in natural resources, particularly petroleum, nickel, iron ore, natural gas, coal, and gold.

Although it is a medium-sized country within South America, Ecuador is the continent's most densely populated nation. It is located along the Earth's equator.

The small nation of Paraguay has a relatively homogenous population: most people are of mixed European and Guaraní (indigenous) ancestry.

Known for its ancient history and Incan Empire, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America and the fifth in Latin America. It is known for force amazon com mountainous topography and relatively large indigenous population.

Uruguay is South America's third smallest country, and, like neighboring Argentina, has a population that is largely of European descent (88%).

With a long coastline on the northern border of South America, Venezuela has much in common culturally with its Caribbean neighbors. It is the birthplace of the "liberator" of South America, Simon Bolivar.

The Caribbean

The Caribbean is the sub-region with the most diverse history of European colonization: Spanish, French, English, Dutch, and Kreyol are all spoken. Only the Spanish-speaking countries will be discussed in this article.

The last Spanish colony to gain its independence, Cuba is the largest and most populous nation in the Caribbean. Like the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the indigenous population was virtually eliminated in Cuba, and the primary type of racial mixture was between Africans and Europeans.

The Dominican Republic comprises the eastern two-thirds of what Spanish colonizers named the island of Hispaniola, and it has historically had a tense relationship with the western third of the island, Haiti. Culturally and linguistically, the Dominican Republic has much in common with Cuba and Puerto Rico.

The small island of Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the U.S., although there has been a consistent debate throughout the past century about whether to continue with this status or to pursue statehood or independence. Since 1917, Puerto Ricans have been granted automatic U.S. citizenship, yet they don't have banner federal credit union loans right to vote in presidential elections.

Sources

Источник: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-latin-america-4691831
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