woodstock chimes reviews

Amazon.com: Woodstock Chimes EGC The Original Guaranteed Musically Tuned Chime Medium Emperor Gong, Find answers in product info, Q&As, reviews. The wind that you hear in a speeding car when the window is down is different again, as is that of pan pipes or wind chimes. simple way for a wind chime to sound even when it's not a windy day," said an. Interactive Brokers Review · Personal Capital Review.

: Woodstock chimes reviews

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Woodstock chimes reviews

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Original and exclusive magic sound effects: dreamy and ethereal sounds, delicate harps, chimes and more. gl/q8uhhn Credit : 1 - intro music : Big Horns Intro performs Audionautix with a Creative Commons Attribution license ( creativecommons. Typing Computer Keyboard, Office Sound Effects, Office equipment computer typing sounds, royal fam theme music sound fx, sound effect sites and free chime sound fx Typing Computer Keyboard Thu, 7 Oct 2021 4:01:40 PM EDT About Free Sound Effects, Free FX Sounds Pack. Get unlimited download access to thousands of music tracks, loops, and sound effects with an affordable subscription plan. WindChimePadC1 Sound Effect. WAV License: Personal Use Only Category: Sound Effect Size: 39 KB Don't feel like waiting? Make a small donation to pay for our bandwidth and download all audio at 1x for free. 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The Best Wind Chime

Best image of wind chimes

Photo: SuninYo Wind Chimes for Outside,36 inches Wind Chimes Outdoor Clearance,Wind Chime with S Hook for Home Garden Decoration

UPDATED NOVEMBER 25, 2021

To help you find the perfect wind chime, we continuously put forth the effort to update and expand our list of recommendable wind chimes. Our team collects, edits and publishes new information, in order to present it to you in an accurate, significant and neatly arranged way.

Buying Guide

AS a breeze blows by, the delicate sounds of a wind chime can fill your heart with joy and pleasure. The wide range of wind chimes available on the market will suit almost anyone’s personal taste. You can find wind chimes made of every material from metal to shell and with many different designs to fit your décor. Read on to learn about the various types of wind chimes and how to best hang this sound-maker for best effect.
Your wind chimes’ sound will be controlled primarily by two things, the pitch and the tambour. The pitch is determined by the length of the tubes or other items being strung together. The tambour, or voice, of your wind chimes will depend on the material it is made from. First, we will look at the materials and their effect on tambour and durability and then we will focus on the pitch created by the size of the pipes or other items.

Material
There are a large variety of materials that can be used to create the inharmonic sounds of a wind chime. While metal and bamboo are the most common and popular, you can also find glass, pottery, shell, stone, and beads. A closer look at the effect the material has on tambour and durability will help you discover the best wind chimes for you.

Metal
Wind chimes made of metal are the most popular because of high durability and tunability. Only metal wind chimes can be tuned to specific notes or even to specific melodies. Weather-proof and rust-resistant, you will not have to worry about these wind chimes losing their beauty, either visually or audibly. Wind chime metal is usually aluminum, steel, or brass. This kind of wind chime is best suited to those looking for melodious sounds or even the sound of their favorite tune.

Bamboo
Not as durable as metal wind chimes, bamboo wind chimes can split, particularly if left out in the rain. However, this has little effect on the soft, soothing sounds created by bamboo. Deep and resonant, bamboo wind chimes cannot be tuned. All the same, they can be made to imitate exotic drums or rain. If you are looking for an environmentally-friendly and natural-sounding wind chime, this is your best choice.

Glass
The tinkling of a glass wind chime can be very soothing to all who are near. On the other hand, these wind chimes can break easily in a storm or if not hung properly. Glass wind chimes can be found in a variety of colors and themes because the material is very easy to color and mold during the blowing process. Best suited to people who enjoy the sound of crystal goblets, glass wind chimes are beautiful and colorful additions to anyone’s porch or garden.

Shell
If you like the beach, shell wind chimes will definitely be the best choice for you. The sound is reminiscent of the tide dragging shells through the sand and is very soft and light. Furthermore, this is a great environmentally-friendly alternative to bamboo. Due to their nature, shells are more durable and will not break or split in storms. They cannot be tuned, but their inharmonic clinking will be a happy reminder of a day at the beach.

Size Matters
When shopping for a wind chime, you should consider the size of the rods or objects. This will determine the pitch of the notes your wind chime plays. The longer the rod or larger the object, the deeper the note will sound, while shorter rods and smaller objects make higher pitched notes. Thus, if you wish a high-pitched tinkling, choose a wind chime with smaller, shorter rods or little objects like beads. On the other hand, if you want low bass notes, select a wind chime with longer rods or larger objects.

Hanging Your Wind chime
You may think hanging a wind chime is a simple matter. However, there are many steps to properly hanging wind chimes. First, you will need to figure out where to place the sound-maker. Choose a location away from walls and other wind obstructers, such as screens, plants, or latticework. The location you choose should be one that gets a gentle breeze on most days. Next, you should gather your supplies. You will need a sturdy stepladder, a hook, a drill with a narrow bit, and pliers. Drill a shallow pilot hole into the post or ceiling where you are going to install the wind chime. Install the hook into the place where you started the hole, using pliers to turn it clockwise to thread it into the hole. Be careful to maintain a straight and level threading. Slip the wind chime’s loop over the hook and spread the rods out a bit to ensure they have room to swing without hitting anything nearby. Leave the chimes there for a few days and listen to them to ensure you are happy with their placement.
Wind chimes can make an environment relaxing and peaceful. However, not every wind chime is right for everyone. There is a huge variety of wind chimes available for sale and choosing the right wind chime can make the difference between being relaxed and being annoyed. In addition, the placement of your wind chime will make a big difference in how much and what quality of sound is produced. By reading this guide, you will have an easier time selecting the right wind chime for you.

Top Rated Wind Chimes

If you're looking into finding the best rated wind chime, you should probable check out the Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes. We looked at various sources of reviews and found this one to have the best mix between review count and average rating stars.

Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes

The Lowest Price We Could Find

Often, going for the best price is a simple but good option. With a price of $16.99(last checked this morning), we do not list any other wind chime cheaper than the Sweetfull DesGully Chimes. Just remember that it's not always the best option to go for the cheapest one.

Sweetfull DesGully Chimes

The Wind Chime With the Most Reviews

With at least 2159 reviews and counting, the Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes might be another option to consider. This large amount of reviews signalizes that many people are using it, with most of them beeing satisfied.

High Quality Wind Chimes

It's quite rare that the saying "You get what you pay for" turns out incorrect. If you have the money on the sideline, feel free to choose the most expensive item from our list: The Woodstock Percussion, Inc. Woodstock Chimes currently sells for $94.95.

Woodstock Percussion, Inc. Woodstock Chimes

The Wind Chime With the Most Clicks

If you trust us and our users, feel free to check out the Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes. Our statistics say that it is the most favorite Wind Chime from the list above.

Our Bestseller

If you're still undecided, I would recommend that you go with the masses and choose the top selling wind chime: The LeiDrail Solar Chimes is the hottest bestseller in this category right now.

LeiDrail Solar Chimes

Wind Chime Reviews

There are no reviews on wind chimes, yet.

Be the first to write a review, or check for additional reviews in the Further Reading section below.

Further Reading on Wind Chimes

New: Our editorial list of additional articles. We decided to gather informartion all around the internet and present you a list of helpful, external links to interesting reads about reviews, pros & cons and similar products.

Wind Chimes and More: Glass Wind Chimes: Pros and Cons

Take your time to look over the pros and the cons of buying glass wind chimes before you finally take the time to look into them. You may find that they aren't  ...

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Source: windchimesandmore.blogspot.com

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Woodstock Chimes Wholesale Capiz Wind Chimes - Alterna...

Wind chimes are a great way to bring peace and harmony while adding elegance to your home patio or garden. A wind chime makes a wonderful Mother's Day gift. They are also good housewarming gifts and anniversary gifts. Wind Chimes are... ...

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Source: alternativesglobalmarketplace.com

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Windchimes - An honest take some pros and some cons ...

Cons. Although the strategy is incredible, there is a significant lack in execution skills such as app developers, video makers and writer. ...

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Source: www.glassdoor.com

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New content is added daily so bookmark us and come back to get the freshest audio content online today! Failure wrong melody played with trombone, chimes and marimba. File Details Get Wind chimes Sounds from Soundsnap, the Leading Sound Library for Unlimited SFX Downloads. So do not hesitate to make a small donation , or buy a t-shirt ! Noise of the pendulum of a grandfather clock. Best online sound effects library. A slot machine, race car, and ice cubes in a glass are just some of the sounds you can download from their site. Typing Computer Keyboard, Office Sound Effects, Office equipment computer typing sounds, royal fam theme music sound fx, sound effect sites and free chime sound fx Typing Computer Keyboard Thu, 7 Oct 2021 4:01:40 PM EDT Woodstock Chimes are the original musically tuned windchime. Magic Chimes On Wind royalty free sound effect. From modern ‘ding dong’ style chimes to older bells and electronic rings. When listening to a Woodstock Chime you're hearing a perfectly tuned musical instrument played by the wind. You can disable them Need a sound effect service in Canada? Read reviews & compare projects by leading sound effect companies. Struggle with music licensing for video, film or YouTube? Our library is of the highest quality, usable on all social platforms and royalty-free forever. Sfx Magic Effect 11. GR Sites has a very small sound effect library at just under 2,000 royalty-free sound effect clips, but they are curated to be perfect for website projects. Download these ten free high-quality sound effects and use them in your Christmas projects. These files have been grouped together by type and compressed into ZIP archives that can be downloaded using the links below. All of our sound effects are free to download and ready to use in your next video or audio project, under the Mixkit License. Unlimited projects, worldwide, forever. Advertisement Sound. ! 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Woodstock Chimes AGMS

Woodstock Chimes AGMS

 

Cohasset Small Butterfly

Material

Looking for a gift for your friend or buying a wind chime for yourself to relieve the stress during a day? Cohasset Small Butterfly Wind Chime made from genuine bamboo by Bali artificians will come to you liking and soothe family evenings in the yard. Wooden exterior design looks amazingly in the garden, so you can enjoy not only beautiful, but also eco-friendly wind chimes in your garden.

Appearance and Size

Cohasset Small Butterfly is a wood wind chime that consists of 6 hand-tuned bamboo tubes. They are painted blue inside and each tube has a small image of a butterfly. The wind chime makes pleasant sound when the wind blows. Great for decorating a garden or patio. There is only one available size of this eco-friendly wind chime - 12 inches.

Features

There's not a lot of extra features to expect on buying this wind chime. It's made to be pretty simple. The main beauty about Cohasset Small Butterfy Wind Chime though is eco-friendly bamboo and coconut wooden material. Unlike most other tubes (glass and metal), the wooden chime produces especially nice sound, the sound you'd recognize miles away. On purchasing this wind chime, you'll get nicely shaped tubes and incredibly clean and quality sounding.

Last updated price$17.00
Stock In stock
ASINB000XJXMQM

Cohasset Small Butterfly

Cohasset Small Butterfly

 

UMA Enterprises Urban Trends Capiz Wind Chime

Material

This multicolor wind chime is made of environmentally-friendly materials. This feature would be highly appreciated by those who are focused on health and concerned about the preservation of the environment. The genuine Capiz shells, used in the manufacturing of this wind chime, produce a soft tinkling sound during a breeze. Urban Trends Capiz Wind Chime is not so loud and whistling as other wind chimes are. Thus, the sound will be truly relaxing. And a varnished wooden base completes the coastal decoration and makes this wind chime perfect for your garden or patio.

Appearance and Size

The shells, shaped in different forms and painted in various colors, will become an eye-catching addition to any modern interior of a patio and various landscape gardening patterns. Owing to the size of approximately 20 inches, you can place this wind chime literally in any corner of your bloomy garden! Or decorate your patio with this outstanding and marvelous wind chime as the sound it makes won't be heard inside your house and won't disturb you at night.

Features

The unique feature of this wind chime is the sound produced by the shells. It cannot be compared to any other melodies. It reminds you of the sea and ocean, the sound of waves, and of vacation and summer days. If you would like to enjoy relaxing and whispering sounds, Urban Trends Capiz Wind Chime is a real catch for you! But you should know that the shells are rather fragile, so it is recommended to take the wind chime off during really strong winds or in case of a storm.

Last updated price$10.99
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UMA Enterprises Urban Trends Capiz Wind Chime

UMA Enterprises Urban Trends Capiz Wind Chime

 
Источник: https://www.bestadvisor.com/best-wind-chimes

Woodstock Healing WindChime

Material

All these 9 tubes are made of 100% silver aluminium. The top and wind catchers are made of black and cherry ash wood. Therefore, this wind chime is a durable and high-quality product, which will live and sound for long a time. Thanks to the material, the design of this wind chime can be suitable for house and garden as well.

Appearance and Size

This is a great wind chime that has certain Japanese traits. There are 9 aluminum tubes that produce charming and pleasurable melodic sound. No need to say, there is a ring on top, so you can hang the wind chime without any difficulty. These musical wind chimes are really large: they are 34-inches high and around 15-inches wide. You should better find a special place to hang this wind chime.

Features

This musical wind chime is created by professionals who are engaged in music and design tools. Thanks to their 30 years experience, the melody of the wind chime captivates the soul right away. In this way, you can get not only a nice addition to your interior but also great sounding to while up time in the evenings and during a day.

Last updated price$35.93
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Woodstock Healing Chimes by Serenity Health & Home Decor

Woodstock Healing WindChime

Woodstock Healing WindChime

 

IMAGE Windlights Solar

Material

This wind chime is made from quality LED glass, powered by solar energy during a day. It doesn't produce any music like most other wind chimes on sale, but it does appeal to the most. Made from glass, they look a proper art-work during a day and a real magic, radiating lights and sparkles, in the evenings. If you're looking for something that would visually magnificent, Image Windlights will surely ensure the desired effect.

Appearance and Size

Glass chime bells in a form of birds are hanging on strips and tied to a metal dome. There is also a dome with solar panels on a top and all birds are connected to it by dint of wires. This wind chime doesn`t make any sounds, they produce nice and charming glowing. Only one size of these glass wind chime bells is available and the item is about 28 inches, so you need to find an appropriate place to hang it.

Features

Top of the dome is equipped with solar panels which consume solar light and produce power for glowing. It's an eye-candy wind chime, there are 6 glass birds and each of them has a built-in LED light that changes the color. A battery can work up to 8 hours without charging. Has an automatic sensor, can light up when it's dark.

Last updated price$14.99
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AGPtek - Six Hummingbird Solar Mobile Wind Chimes with Led Lights Review

IMAGE Windlights Solar

IMAGE Windlights Solar

 

Woodstock Chimes AGMS

Material

Silver tubes which produce the sound are made of genuine aluminium. The top of the chime bells is made of a natural bamboo pad. The windcatcher is also food bank savannah ga of bamboo. No plastic, only natural and quality materials. So if you have ecological materials in your room, for example, these wind chimes will totally fit in.

Appearance and Size

These musical wind chimes have an eye-catching classic design and will surely fit any decor. The strips hold aluminium tubes. You can attach these wind chimes to a porch or a tree, for example. There are three color variations available: silver, natural, and silver tubes. These Feng Shui wind chimes are available in several sizes: 14.6 inches and 22 inches.

Features

A distinctive feature of this musical wind chime is that it is designed by a professional musician Garry Kvistad. That`s why it has special unique sound. Has inspiring tones of Amazing Grace, it is one of the best and favorite hymns of America. You can buy this wind chime and simply enjoy good sounding.

Last updated price$35.70
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ASINB00026W5UK

VIDEO

Woodstock Wind Chimes

InventHelp Inventor Develops Accessory to Enjoy Wind Chimes Anytime (ORD-2889)

PITTSBURGH, Nov. 22, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- "I wanted to create a simple way for a wind chime to sound even when it's not a windy day," said an inventor, from Crescent City, Fla., "so I invented the ANYTIME WIND CHIME. My design can be utilized with wind chimes within the home or outdoors on porches, decks and in yards."


InventHelp Logo (PRNewsfoto/InventHelp)

The patent-granted invention provides an effective way to enjoy a wind chime indoors or in calm weather. In doing so, it eliminates the need for wind. As a result, it provides a relaxing and soothing sound and it could enhance entertainment. The invention features a novel design that is easy to apply and use so it is ideal for households. Additionally, it is producible in design variations.

The original design was submitted to the Orlando sales office of InventHelp. It is currently available for licensing or sale to manufacturers or marketers. For more information, write Dept. 19-ORD-2889, InventHelp, 217 Ninth Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, or call (412) 288-1300 ext. 1368. Learn more about InventHelp's Invention Submission Services at http://www.InventHelp.com.

Cision View original content to download multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/inventhelp-inventor-develops-accessory-to-enjoy-wind-chimes-anytime-ord-2889-301427600.html

SOURCE InventHelp

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Источник: https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/21/11/n24232727/inventhelp-inventor-develops-accessory-to-enjoy-wind-chimes-anytime-ord-2889

The Best Wind Chime

Best image of wind chimes

Photo: SuninYo Wind Chimes for Outside,36 inches Wind Chimes Outdoor Clearance,Wind Chime with S Hook for Home Garden Decoration

UPDATED NOVEMBER 25, 2021

To help you find the perfect wind chime, we continuously put forth the effort to update and expand our list of recommendable wind chimes. Our team collects, edits and publishes new information, in order to present it to you in an accurate, significant and neatly arranged way.

Buying Guide

AS a breeze blows by, the delicate sounds of a wind chime can fill your heart with joy and pleasure. The wide range of wind chimes available on the market will suit almost anyone’s personal taste. You can find wind chimes made of every material from metal to shell and with many different designs to fit your décor. Read on to learn about the various types of wind chimes and how to best hang this sound-maker for best effect.
Your wind chimes’ sound will be controlled primarily by two things, the pitch and the tambour. The pitch is determined by the length of the tubes or other items being strung together. The tambour, or voice, of your wind chimes will depend on the material it is made from. First, we will look at the materials and their effect on tambour and durability and then we will focus on the pitch created by the size of the pipes or other items.

Material
There are a large variety of materials that can be used to create the inharmonic sounds of a wind chime. While metal and bamboo are the most common and popular, you can also find glass, pottery, shell, stone, and beads. A closer look at the effect the material has on tambour and durability will help you discover the best wind chimes for you.

Metal
Wind chimes made of metal are the most popular because of high durability and tunability. Only metal wind chimes can be tuned to specific notes or even to specific melodies. Weather-proof and rust-resistant, you will not have to worry about these wind chimes losing their beauty, either visually or audibly. Wind chime metal is usually aluminum, steel, or brass. This kind of wind chime is best suited to those looking for melodious sounds or even the sound of their favorite tune.

Bamboo
Not as durable as metal wind chimes, bamboo wind chimes can split, particularly if left out in the rain. However, this has little effect on the soft, soothing sounds created by bamboo. Deep and resonant, bamboo wind chimes cannot be tuned. All the same, they can be made to imitate exotic drums or rain. If you are looking for an environmentally-friendly and natural-sounding wind chime, this is your best choice.

Glass
The tinkling of a glass wind chime can be very soothing to all who are near. On the other hand, these wind chimes can break easily in a storm or if not hung properly. Glass wind chimes can be found in a variety of colors and themes because the material is very easy to color and mold during the blowing process. Best suited to people who enjoy the sound of crystal goblets, glass wind chimes are beautiful and colorful additions to anyone’s porch or garden.

Shell
If you like the beach, shell wind chimes will definitely be the best choice for you. The sound is reminiscent of the tide dragging shells through the sand and is very soft and light. Furthermore, this is a great environmentally-friendly alternative to bamboo. Due to their nature, shells are more durable and will not break or split in storms. They cannot be tuned, but their inharmonic clinking will be a happy reminder of a day at the beach.

Size Matters
When shopping for a wind chime, you should consider the size of the rods or objects. This will determine the pitch of the notes your wind chime plays. The longer the rod or larger the object, the deeper the note will sound, while shorter rods and smaller objects make higher pitched notes. Thus, if you wish a high-pitched tinkling, choose a wind chime with smaller, shorter rods or little objects like beads. On the other hand, if you want low bass notes, select a wind chime with longer rods or larger objects.

Hanging Your Wind chime
You may think hanging a wind chime is a simple matter. However, there are many steps to properly hanging wind chimes. First, you will need to figure out where to place the sound-maker. Choose a location away from walls and other wind obstructers, such as screens, plants, or latticework. The location you choose should be one that gets a gentle breeze on most days. Next, you should gather your supplies. You will need a sturdy stepladder, a hook, a drill with a narrow bit, and pliers. Drill a shallow pilot hole into the post or ceiling where you are going to install the wind chime. Install the hook into the place where you started the hole, using pliers to turn it clockwise to thread it into the hole. Be careful to maintain a straight and level threading. Slip the wind chime’s loop over the hook and spread the rods out a bit to ensure they have room to swing without hitting anything nearby. Leave the chimes there for a few days and listen to them to ensure you are happy with their placement.
Wind chimes can make an environment relaxing and peaceful. However, not every wind chime is right for everyone. There is a huge variety of wind chimes available for sale and choosing the right wind chime can make the difference between being relaxed and being annoyed. In addition, the placement of your wind chime will make a big difference in how much and what quality of sound is produced. By reading this guide, you will have an easier time selecting the right wind chime for mor furniture for less riverside ca.

Top Rated Wind Chimes

If you're looking into finding the best rated wind chime, you should probable check out the Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes. We looked at various sources of reviews and found this one to have the best mix between review count and average rating stars.

Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes

The Lowest Price We Could Find

Often, going for the best price is a simple but good option. With a price of $16.99(last checked this morning), we do not list any other wind chime cheaper than the Sweetfull DesGully Chimes. Just remember that it's not always the best option to go for the cheapest one.

Sweetfull DesGully Chimes

The Wind Chime With the Most Reviews

With at least 2159 reviews and counting, the Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes might be another option to consider. This large amount of reviews signalizes that many people are using it, with most of them beeing satisfied.

High Quality Wind Chimes

It's quite rare that the saying "You get what you pay for" turns out incorrect. If you have the money on the sideline, feel free to choose the most expensive item from our list: The Woodstock Percussion, Inc. Woodstock Chimes currently sells for $94.95.

Woodstock Percussion, Inc. Woodstock Chimes

The Wind Chime With the Most Clicks

If you trust us and our users, feel free to check out walmart closing time in usa Woodstock s Woodstock Chimes. Our statistics say that it is the most favorite Wind Chime from the list above.

Our Bestseller

If you're still undecided, I would recommend that you go with the masses and choose the top selling wind chime: The LeiDrail Solar Chimes is the hottest bestseller in this category right now.

LeiDrail Solar Chimes

Wind Chime Reviews

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Be the first to write a review, or check for additional reviews in the Further Reading section below.

Further Reading on Wind Chimes

New: Our editorial list of additional articles. We decided to gather informartion all around the internet and present you a list of helpful, external links to interesting reads about reviews, pros & cons and similar products.

Wind Chimes and More: Glass Wind Chimes: Pros and Cons

Take your time to look over the pros and the cons of buying glass wind chimes before you finally take the time to look into them. You may find that they aren't  .

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Woodstock Chimes Wholesale Wind Chimes, Chimes, Bamboo .

The official site of Woodstock Chimes®, known the world over for musically-tuned wind chimes, bamboo wind chimes, gongs, bells, and instruments. .

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13 Alternatives to Windchime for iPhone - Product Hunt

Discover alternatives, similar and related products to windchime that everyone is talking about. .

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Research

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Corinthian Wind Chimes

Corinthian wind chimes are the best sounding chimes available at any price. Made in the USA!

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Orson Welles

American actor, director, writer, and producer (1915–1985)

For the Massachusetts businessman Orson Wells, see Wells House (North Adams, Massachusetts). For the spider, see Orsonwelles. For the crater on Mars, see Orson Welles (crater).

Orson Welles

Orson Welles 1937.jpg

Welles in 1937 (aged 21), photographed by Carl Van Vechten

Born

George Orson Welles


(1915-05-06)May 6, 1915

Kenosha, Wisconsin, U.S.

DiedOctober 10, 1985(1985-10-10) (aged 70)

Los Angeles, California, U.S.

Resting placeRonda, Spain
Alma materSchool of the Art Institute of Chicago[1][2]
Occupation
  • Actor
  • director
  • producer
  • screenwriter
Years active1931–1985
Spouse(s)
Partner(s)
Children3, including Beatrice Welles
Orson Welles signature.svg

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American director, actor, screenwriter, and producer who is remembered for his innovative work in radio, theatre and film. He is considered to be among the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.[3]

While in his 20s, Welles directed high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project, including an adaptation of Macbeth with an entirely African American cast and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937, he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941, including Caesar (1937), a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.

In 1938, his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air gave Welles the platform to find international fame as the director and narrator of a radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds, which caused some listeners to believe that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was in fact occurring. Although reports of panic were mostly false and overstated,[4] they rocketed 23-year-old Welles to notoriety.

His first film was Citizen Kane (1941), which is consistently ranked as one of the greatest films ever made woodstock chimes reviews which he co-wrote, produced, directed and starred in as Charles Foster Kane. Welles released twelve other features, the most acclaimed of which include The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), The Lady from Shanghai (1947), Touch of Evil (1958), The Trial (1962), Chimes at Midnight (1965) and F for Fake (1973).[5][6] His distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots and long takes. He has been praised as "the ultimate auteur".[7]: 6 

Welles was an outsider to the studio system and struggled for creative control on his projects early on with the major film studios in Hollywood and later in life with a variety of independent financiers across Europe, where he spent most of his career. Many of his films were either heavily edited or remained unreleased. Some, like Touch of Evil, have been painstakingly re-edited from his notes. With a development spanning almost 50 years, Welles's final film, The Other Side of the Wind, was released in 2018.

Welles had three marriages, including one with Rita Hayworth, and three children. Known for his baritone voice,[8] Welles performed extensively across theatre, radio, and film. He was a lifelong magician, noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years. In 2002, he was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute polls among directors and critics.[9][10] In 2018, he was included in the list of the 50 greatest Hollywood actors of all time by The Daily Telegraph.[11]

Early life[edit]

Orson Welles at age three (1918)

Welles with his mother, Beatrice Ives Welles

George Orson Welles was born May 6, 1915, in Kenosha, Wisconsin, a son of Richard Head Welles (1872–1930)[12]: 26 [13][a] and Beatrice Ives Welles (née Beatrice Lucy Ives; 1883–1924).[13][14]: 9 [b] He was named after one of his great-grandfathers, influential Kenosha attorney Orson S. Head, and his brother George Head.[12]: 37  An alternative story of the source of his first and middle names was told by George Ade, who met Welles's parents on a West Indies cruise toward the end of 1914. Ade was traveling with a friend, Orson Wells (no relation), and the two of them sat at the same table as Mr. and Mrs. Richard Welles. Mrs. Welles was pregnant at the time, and when they said goodbye, she told them that she had enjoyed their company so much that if the child were a boy, she intended to name it for them: George Orson.[16]

Despite his family's affluence, Welles encountered hardship in childhood. His parents separated and moved to Chicago in 1919. His father, who made a fortune as the inventor of a popular bicycle lamp,[17] became an alcoholic and stopped working. Welles's mother, a pianist, played during lectures by Dudley Crafts Watson at the Art Institute of Chicago to support her son and herself; the oldest Welles boy, "Dickie", was institutionalized at an early age because he had learning difficulties. Beatrice died of hepatitis in a Chicago hospital on May 10, 1924, just after Welles's ninth birthday.[18]: 3–5 [19]: 326  The Gordon String Quartet, a predecessor to the Berkshire String Quartet, which had made its first appearance at her home in 1921, played at Beatrice's funeral.[20][21]

After his mother's death, Welles ceased pursuing music. It was decided that he would spend the summer with the Watson family at a private art colony in the village of Wyoming in the Finger Lakes Region of New York State, established by Lydia Avery Coonley Ward.[22]: 8  There, he played and became friends with the children of the Aga Khan, including the 12-year-old Prince Aly Khan. Then, in what Welles later described as "a hectic period" in his life, he lived in a Chicago apartment with both his father and Maurice Bernstein, a Chicago physician who had been a close friend of both his parents. Welles briefly attended public school[23]: 133  before his alcoholic father left business altogether and took him along on his travels to Jamaica and the Far East. When they returned, they settled in a hotel in Grand Detour, Illinois, that was owned by his father. When the hotel burned down, Welles and his father took to the road again.[22]: 9 

"During the three years that Orson lived with his father, some observers wondered who took care of whom," wrote biographer Frank Brady.[22]: 9 

"In some ways, he was never really a young boy, you know," said Roger Hill, who became Welles's teacher and lifelong friend.[24]: 24 

Welles in 1926: "Cartoonist, Actor, Poet and only 10"

Welles briefly attended public school in Madison, Wisconsin, enrolled in the fourth grade.[22]: 9  On September 15, 1926, he entered the Todd Seminary for Boys,[23]: 3  an expensive independent school in Woodstock, Illinois, that his older brother, Richard Ives Welles, had attended ten years before until he was expelled for misbehavior.[12]: 48  At Todd School, Welles came under the influence of Roger Hill, a teacher who was later Todd's headmaster. Hill provided Welles with an ad hoc educational environment that proved invaluable to his creative experience, allowing Welles to concentrate on subjects that interested him. Welles performed and staged theatrical experiments and productions there.[25]

"Todd provided Welles with many valuable experiences," wrote critic Richard France. "He was able to explore and experiment in an atmosphere of acceptance and encouragement. In addition to a theatre, the school's own radio station was at his disposal."[26]: 27  Welles's first radio experience was on the Todd station, where he performed an adaptation of Sherlock Holmes that was written by him.[18]: 7 

On December 28, 1930, when Welles was 15, his father died of heart and kidney failure at the age of 58, alone in a hotel in Chicago. Shortly before this, Welles had announced to his father that he would stop seeing him, believing it would prompt his father to refrain from drinking. As a result, Orson felt guilty because he believed his father had drunk himself to death because of him.[27] His father's will left it to Orson to name his guardian. When Roger Hill declined, Welles chose Maurice Bernstein.[28]: 71–72 

Following graduation from Todd in May 1931,[23]: 3  Welles was awarded a scholarship to Harvard College, while his mentor Roger Hill advocated he attend Cornell College in Iowa.[29] Rather than enrolling, he chose travel. He studied for a few weeks at the Art Institute of Chicago[30]: 117  with Boris Anisfeld, who encouraged him to pursue painting.[22]: 18 

Welles occasionally returned to Woodstock, the place he eventually named when he was asked in a 1960 interview, "Where is home?" Welles replied, "I suppose it's Woodstock, Illinois, if it's anywhere. I went to school there for four years. If I try to think of a home, it's that."[31]

Early career (1931–1935)[edit]

After graduating, 16-year-old Welles embarked on a painting and sketching tour of Ireland and the Aran Islands, traveling by donkey cart (1931)

After his father's death, Welles traveled to Europe using a small portion of his inheritance. Welles said that while on a walking and painting trip through Ireland, he strode into the Gate Theatre in Dublin and claimed he was a Broadway star. The manager of the Gate, Hilton Edwards, later said he had not believed him but was impressed by his brashness and an impassioned audition he gave.[32]: 134  Welles made his stage debut at the Gate Theatre on October 13, 1931, appearing in Ashley Dukes's adaptation of Jew Suss as Duke Karl Alexander of Württemberg. He performed small supporting roles in subsequent Gate productions, and he produced and designed productions of his own in Dublin. In March 1932, Welles performed in W. Somerset Maugham's The Circle at Dublin's Abbey Theatre and synchrony bank payment customer service number to London to find additional work in the theatre. Unable to obtain a work permit, he returned to the U.S.[19]: 327–330 

Welles found his fame ephemeral and turned to a writing project at Todd School that became immensely successful, first entitled Everybody's Shakespeare and subsequently, The Mercury Shakespeare. Welles traveled to North Africa while working on thousands of illustrations for the Everybody's Shakespeare series of educational books, a series that remained in print for decades.[33]

In 1933, Roger and Hortense Hill invited Welles to a party in Chicago, where Welles met Thornton Wilder. Wilder arranged for Welles to meet Alexander Woollcott in New York in order that he be introduced to Katharine Cornell, who was assembling a repertory theatre company. Cornell's husband, director Guthrie McClintic, immediately put Welles under contract and cast him in three plays.[22]: 46–49 Romeo and Juliet, The Barretts of Wimpole Street and Candida toured in repertory for 36 weeks beginning in November 1933, with the first of more than 200 performances taking place in Buffalo, New York.[19]: 330–331 

In 1934, Welles got his first job on radio—with The American School of the Air—through actor-director Paul Stewart, who introduced him to director Knowles Entrikin.[19]: 331  That summer, Welles staged a drama festival with the Todd School at the Opera House in Woodstock, Illinois, inviting Micheál Mac Liammóir and Hilton Edwards from Dublin's Gate Theatre to appear along with New York stage luminaries in productions including Trilby, Hamlet, The Drunkard and Tsar Paul. At the old firehouse in Woodstock, he also shot fifth third bank health savings account login first film, an eight-minute short titled, The Hearts of Age.[19]: 330–331 

On November 14, 1934, Welles married Chicago socialite and actress Virginia Nicolson[19]: 332  (often misspelled "Nicholson")[34] in a civil ceremony in New York. To appease the Nicolsons, who were furious at the couple's elopement, a formal ceremony took place December 23, 1934, at the New Jersey mansion of the bride's godmother. Welles wore a cutaway borrowed from his friend George Macready.[28]: 182 

A revised production of Katharine Cornell's Romeo and Juliet opened December 20, 1934, at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York.[19]: 331–332 [35] The Broadway production brought the 19-year-old Welles (now playing Tybalt) to the notice of John Houseman, a theatrical producer who was casting the lead role in the debut production of Archibald MacLeish's verse play, Panic.[36]: 144–158  On March 22, 1935, Welles made his debut on the CBS Radio series The March of Time, performing a scene from Panic for a news report on the stage production[22]: 70–71 

By 1935, Welles was supplementing his earnings in the theatre as a radio actor in Manhattan, working with many actors who later formed the core of his Mercury Theatre on programs including America's Hour, Cavalcade of America, Columbia Workshop and The March of Time.[19]: 331–332  "Within a year of his debut Welles could claim membership in that elite band of radio actors who commanded salaries second only to the highest paid movie stars," wrote critic Richard France.[26]: 172 

Theatre (1936–1938)[edit]

Main article: Orson Welles theatre credits

Federal Theatre Project[edit]

Part of the Works Progress Administration, the Federal Theatre Project (1935–39) was a New Deal program to fund theatre and other live artistic performances and entertainment programs in the United States during the Great Depression. It was created as a relief measure to employ artists, writers, directors and theatre workers. Under national director Hallie Flanagan it was shaped into a truly national theatre that created relevant art, encouraged experimentation and innovation, and made it possible for millions of Americans to see live theatre for the first time.[37]

John Houseman, director of the Negro Theatre Unit in New York, invited Welles to join the Federal Theatre Project in 1935. Far from unemployed — "I was so employed I forgot how to sleep" — Welles put a large share of his $1,500-a-week radio earnings into his stage productions, bypassing administrative red tape and mounting the projects more quickly and professionally. "Roosevelt once said that I was the only operator in history who ever illegally siphoned money into a Washington project," Welles said.[19]: 11–13 

The Federal Theatre Project was the ideal environment in which Welles could develop his art. Its purpose was employment, so he was able to hire any number of artists, craftsmen and technicians, and he filled the stage with performers.[38]: 3  The company for the first production, an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth with an entirely African-American cast, numbered 150.[39] The production became known as the Voodoo Macbeth because Welles changed the setting to a mythical island suggesting the Haitian court of King Henri Christophe,[40]: 179–180  with Haitian vodou fulfilling the role of Scottish witchcraft.[41]: 86  The play opened April 14, 1936, at the Lafayette Theatre in Harlem and was received rapturously. At 20, Welles was hailed as a prodigy.[42] The production then made a 4,000-mile national tour[19]: 333 [43] that included two weeks at the Texas Centennial Exposition in Dallas.[44]

Next mounted was the farce Horse Eats Hat, an adaptation by Welles and Edwin Denby of The Italian Straw Hat, an 1851 five-act farce by Eugène Marin Labiche and Marc-Michel.[24]: 114  The play was presented September 26 – December 5, 1936, at Maxine Elliott's Theatre, New York,[19]: 334  and featured Joseph Cotten in his first starring role.[45]: 34  It was followed by an adaptation of Dr. Faustus that used light as a prime unifying scenic element in a nearly black stage, presented January 8 – May 9, 1937, at Maxine Elliott's Theatre.[19]: 335 

Outside the scope of the Federal Theatre Project,[26]: 100  American composer Aaron Copland chose Welles to direct The Second Hurricane (1937), an operetta with a libretto by Edwin Denby. Presented at the Henry Street Settlement Music School in New York for the benefit of high school students, the production opened April 21, 1937, and ran its scheduled three performances.[19]: 337 

In 1937, Welles rehearsed Marc Blitzstein's political operetta, The Cradle Will Rock.[46] It was originally scheduled to open June 16, 1937, in its first public preview. Because of severe federal cutbacks in the Works Progress projects, the show's premiere at the Maxine Elliott Theatre was canceled. The theater was locked and guarded to prevent any government-purchased materials from being used for a commercial production of the work. In a last-minute move, Welles announced to waiting ticket-holders that the show was being transferred to the Venice, 20 blocks away. Some cast, and some crew and audience, walked the distance on foot. The union musicians refused to perform in a commercial theater for lower non-union government wages. The actors' union stated that the production belonged to the Federal Theatre Project and could not be performed outside that context without permission. Lacking the participation of the union members, The Cradle Will Rock began with Blitzstein introducing the show and playing the piano accompaniment on stage with some cast members performing from the audience. This impromptu performance was well received by its audience.

Mercury Theatre[edit]

At age 22 Welles was Broadway's youngest impresario — producing, directing and starring in an adaptation of Julius Caesar that broke all performance records for the play (1938)

Welles as the octogenarian Captain Shotover in the Mercury Theatre production of Heartbreak House, on the cover of Time (May 9, 1938)

Main article: Mercury Theatre

Breaking with the Federal Theatre Project in 1937, Welles and Houseman founded their own repertory company, which they called the Mercury Theatre. The name was inspired by the title of the iconoclastic magazine, The American Mercury.[22]: 119–120  Welles was executive producer, and the original company included such actors as Joseph Cotten, George Coulouris, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Arlene Francis, Martin Gabel, John Hoyt, Norman Lloyd, Vincent Price, Stefan Schnabel and Hiram Sherman.

"I think he was the greatest directorial talent we've ever had in the [American] theater," Lloyd said of Welles in a 2014 interview. "When you saw a Welles production, you saw the text had been affected, the staging was remarkable, the sets were unusual, music, sound, lighting, a totality of everything. We had not had such a man in our theater. He was the first and remains the greatest."[47]

The Mercury Theatre opened November 11, 1937, with Caesar, Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar—streamlined into an anti-fascist tour de force that Joseph Cotten later described as "so vigorous, so contemporary that it set Broadway on its ear."[45]: 108  The set was completely open with no curtain, and the brick stage wall was painted dark red. Scene changes were achieved by lighting alone.[48]: 165  On the stage was a series of risers; squares were cut into one at intervals and lights were set beneath it, pointing straight up to evoke the "cathedral of light" at the Nuremberg Rallies. "He staged it like a political melodrama that happened the night before," said Lloyd.[47]

Beginning January 1, 1938, Caesar was performed in repertory with The Shoemaker's Holiday; both productions moved to the larger National Theatre. They were followed by Heartbreak House (April 29, 1938) and Danton's Death (November 5, 1938).[38]: 344  As well as being presented in a pared-down oratorio version at the Mercury Theatre on Sunday nights in December 1937, The Cradle Will Rock was at the Windsor Theatre for 13 weeks (January 4 – April 2, 1938).[19]: 340  Such was the success of the Mercury Theatre that Welles appeared on the cover of Time magazine, in full makeup as Captain Shotover in Heartbreak House, in the issue dated May 9, 1938—three days after his 23rd birthday.[49]

On April 6, 1938, during a production of Caesar, Orson Welles accidentally stabbed Joseph Holland with a steel knife during Act 3 Scene 1 where Brutus betrays Caesar, a real knife being used for the way it dramatically caught light during the scene. Holland took a month to recover from the injury, and this incident permanently damaged relations between the two. [50]

Radio (1936–1940)[edit]

Main article: Orson Welles radio credits

Simultaneously with his work in the theatre, Welles worked extensively in radio as an actor, writer, director and producer, often without credit.[38]: 77  Between 1935 and 1937 he was earning as much as $2,000 a week, shuttling between radio studios at such a pace that he would arrive barely in time for a quick scan of his lines before he was on the air. While he was directing the Voodoo Macbeth Welles was dashing between Harlem and midtown Manhattan three times a day to meet his radio commitments.[26]: 172 

In addition to continuing as a repertory player on The March of Time, in the fall of 1936 Welles adapted and performed Hamlet in an early two-part episode of CBS Radio's Columbia Workshop. His performance as the announcer in the series' April 1937 presentation of Archibald MacLeish's verse drama The Fall of the City was an important development in his radio career[38]: 78  and made the 21-year-old Welles an overnight star.[51]: 46 

In July 1937, the Mutual Network gave Welles a seven-week series to adapt Les Misérables. It was his first job as a writer-director for radio,[19]: 338  the radio debut of the Mercury Theatre, and one of Welles's earliest and finest achievements.[52]: 160  He invented the use of narration in radio.[19]: 88 

"By bbva bancomer swift code himself the center of the storytelling process, Welles fostered the impression of self-adulation that was to haunt his career to his dying day", wrote critic Andrew Sarris. "For the most part, however, Welles was singularly generous to the other members of his cast and inspired loyalty from them above and beyond the call of professionalism."[51]: 8 

That September, Mutual chose Welles to play Lamont Cranston, also known as The Shadow. He performed the role anonymously through mid-September 1938.[38]: 83 [53]

The Mercury Theatre on the Air[edit]

Main articles: The Mercury Theatre on the Air, The War of the Worlds (radio drama), and The Campbell Playhouse (radio series)

Welles at the press conference after "The War of the Worlds" broadcast (October 31, 1938)

After the theatrical successes of the Mercury Theatre, CBS Radio invited Orson Welles to create a summer show for 13 weeks. The series began July 11, 1938, initially titled First Person Singular, with the formula that Welles would play the lead in each show. Some months later the show was called The Mercury Theatre on the Air.[51]: 12  The weekly hour-long show presented radio plays based on classic literary works, with original music composed and conducted by Bernard Herrmann.

The Mercury Theatre's radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells October 30, 1938, brought Welles instant fame. The combination of the news bulletin form of the performance with the between-breaks dial spinning habits of listeners was later reported to have created widespread confusion among listeners who failed to hear the introduction, although the extent of this confusion has come into question.[4][54][55][56] Panic was reportedly spread among listeners who believed the fictional news reports of a Martian invasion.[57] The myth of the result created by the combination was reported as fact around the world and disparagingly mentioned by Adolf Hitler in a public speech.[58]

The Mercury Theatre on the Airbecame The Campbell Playhousein December 1938

Welles's growing fame drew Hollywood offers, lures that the independent-minded Welles resisted at first. The Mercury Theatre on the Air, which had been a sustaining show (without sponsorship) was picked up by Campbell Soup and renamed The Campbell Playhouse.[59]The Mercury Theatre on the Air made its last broadcast on December 4, 1938, and The Campbell Playhouse began five days later.

Welles began commuting from California to New York for the two Sunday broadcasts of The Campbell Playhouse after signing a film contract with RKO Pictures in August 1939. In November 1939, production of the show moved from New York to Los Angeles.[19]: 353 

After 20 shows, Campbell began to exercise more creative control and had complete control over story selection. As his contract with Campbell came to an end, Welles chose not to sign on for another season. After the broadcast of March 31, 1940, Welles and Campbell parted amicably.[22]: 221–226 

Hollywood (1939–1948)[edit]

RKO Radio Pictures president George Schaefer eventually offered Welles what generally is considered the greatest contract offered to a filmmaker, much less to one who was untried. Engaging him to write, produce, direct and perform in two motion pictures, the contract subordinated the studio's financial interests to Welles's creative control, and broke all precedent by granting Welles the right of final cut.[60]: 1–2  After signing a summary agreement with RKO on July 22, Welles signed a full-length 63-page contract August 21, 1939.[19]: 353  The agreement was bitterly resented by the Hollywood studios and persistently mocked in the trade press.[60]: 2 

Citizen Kane[edit]

Main article: Citizen Kane

RKO rejected Welles's first two movie proposals, but agreed on the third offer – Citizen Kane. Welles co-wrote, produced and directed the film, and performed the lead role.[61] Welles conceived the project with screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz, who was writing radio plays for The Campbell Playhouse.[60]: 16  Mankiewicz based the original outline of the film script on the life of William Randolph Hearst, whom he knew socially and came to hate after being exiled from Hearst's circle.[62]: 231 

After agreeing on the storyline and character, Welles supplied Mankiewicz with 300 pages of notes and put him under contract to write the first draft screenplay under the supervision of John Houseman. Welles wrote his own draft,[19]: 54  then drastically condensed and rearranged both versions and added scenes of his own. The industry accused Welles of underplaying Mankiewicz's contribution to the script, but Welles countered the attacks by saying, "At the end, naturally, I was the one making the picture, after all—who had to make the decisions. I used what I wanted of Mank's and, rightly or wrongly, kept what I liked of my own."[19]: 54 

Welles's project attracted some of Hollywood's best technicians, including cinematographer Gregg Toland.[61] For the cast, Welles primarily used actors from his Mercury Theatre. Filming Citizen Kane took ten weeks.[61]

Hearst's newspapers barred all reference to Citizen Kane and exerted enormous pressure on the Hollywood film community to force RKO to shelve the film.[60]: 111  RKO chief George Schaefer received a cash offer from MGM's Louis B. Mayer and other major studio executives if he would destroy the negative and existing prints of the film.[60]: 112 

While waiting for Citizen Kane to be released, Welles produced and directed the original Broadway production of Native Son, a drama written by Paul Green and Richard Wright based on Wright's novel. Starring Canada Lee, the show ran March 24 – June 28, 1941, at the St. James Theatre. The Mercury Production was the last time Welles and Houseman worked together.[38]: 12 

Citizen Kane was given a limited release and the film received overwhelming united bank and trust mortgage rates praise. It was voted the best picture of 1941 by the National Board of Review and the New York Film Critics Circle. The film garnered nine Academy Award nominations but won only for Best Original Screenplay, shared by Mankiewicz and Welles. Variety reported that block voting by screen extras deprived Citizen Kane of Oscars for Best Picture and Best Actor (Welles), and similar prejudices were likely to have been responsible for the film receiving no technical awards.[60]: 117 

The delay in the film's release and uneven distribution contributed to mediocre results at the box office. After it ran its course theatrically, Citizen Kane was retired to the vault in 1942. In postwar France, however, the film's reputation grew after it was seen for the first time in 1946.[60]: 117–118  In the Bankamericard visa platinum plus States, it began to be re-evaluated after it began to appear on television in 1956. That year it was also re-released theatrically,[60]: 119  and film critic Andrew Sarris described it as "the great American film" and "the work that influenced the cinema more profoundly than any American film since The Birth of a Nation."[63]Citizen Kane is now widely hailed as one of the greatest films ever made.[64]

The Magnificent Ambersons[edit]

Main article: The Magnificent Ambersons (film)

Welles's second film for RKO was The Magnificent Ambersons, adapted by Welles from the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Booth Tarkington. Toland was not available, so Stanley Cortez was named cinematographer. The meticulous Cortez worked slowly and the film lagged behind schedule and over budget. Prior to production, Welles's contract was renegotiated, revoking his right to control the final cut.[65]The Magnificent Ambersons was in production October 28, 1941 – January 22, 1942.[66]

Throughout the shooting of the film Welles was also producing a weekly half-hour radio series, The Orson Welles Show. Many of the Ambersons cast participated in the CBS Radio series, which ran from September 15, 1941, to February 2, 1942.[67]: 525 

Journey into Fear[edit]

Main article: Journey into Fear (1943 film)

At RKO's request, Welles worked on an adaptation of Eric Ambler's spy thriller, Journey into Fear, co-written with Joseph Cotten. In addition to acting in the film, Welles was the producer. Direction was credited to Norman Foster. Welles later said that they were in such a rush that the director of each scene was determined by whoever was closest to the camera.[19]: 165 

Journey into Fear was in production January 6 – March 12, 1942.[68]

War work[edit]

Goodwill ambassador[edit]

In late November 1941, Welles was appointed as a goodwill ambassador to Latin America by Nelson Rockefeller, U.S. Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs and a principal stockholder in RKO Radio Pictures.[69]: 244  The mission of the OCIAA was cultural diplomacy, promoting hemispheric solidarity and countering the growing influence of the Axis powers in Latin America.[69]: 10–11 John Hay Whitney, head of the agency's Motion Picture Division, was asked by the Brazilian government to produce a documentary of the annual Rio Carnival celebration taking place in early February 1942.[69]: 40–41  In a telegram on December 20, 1941, Whitney wrote Welles, "Personally believe you would make great contribution to hemisphere solidarity with this project."[70]: 65 

The OCIAA sponsored cultural tours to Latin America and appointed goodwill ambassadors including George Balanchine and the American Ballet, Bing Crosby, Aaron Copland, Walt Disney, John Ford and Rita Hayworth. Welles was thoroughly briefed in Washington, D.C., immediately before his departure for Brazil, and film scholar Catherine L. Benamou, a specialist in Latin American affairs, finds it "not unlikely" that he was among the goodwill ambassadors who were asked to gather intelligence for the U.S. government in addition to their cultural duties. She concludes that Welles's acceptance of Whitney's request was "a logical and patently patriotic choice".[69]: 245–247 

In addition to working on his ill-fated film project It's All True, Welles was responsible for radio programs, lectures, interviews and informal talks as part of his OCIAA-sponsored cultural mission, which was regarded as a success.[71]: 192  He spoke on topics ranging from Shakespeare to visual art at gatherings of Brazil's elite, and his two intercontinental radio broadcasts in April 1942 were particularly intended to tell U.S. audiences that President Vargas was a partner with the Allies. Welles's ambassadorial mission was extended to permit his travel to other nations including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.[69]: 247–249, 328  Welles worked for more than half a year with no compensation.[69]: 41, 328 [71]: 189 

Welles's own expectations for the film were modest. "It's All True was not going to make any cinematic history, nor was it intended to," he later said. "It was intended to be a perfectly honorable execution of my job as a goodwill ambassador, bringing entertainment to the Northern Hemisphere that showed them something about the Southern one."[24]: 253 

It's All True[edit]

Main article: It's All True (film)

In July 1941, Welles conceived It's All True as an omnibus film mixing documentary and docufiction[24]: 221 [69]: 27  in a project that emphasized the dignity of labor and celebrated the cultural and ethnic diversity of North America. It was to have been his third film for RKO, following Citizen Kane (1941) and The Magnificent Ambersons (1942).[72]: 109 Duke Ellington was put under contract to score a segment with the working title, "The Story of Jazz", drawn from Louis Armstrong's 1936 autobiography, Swing That Music.[73]: 232–233  Armstrong was cast to play himself in the brief dramatization of the history of jazz performance, from its roots to its place in American culture in the 1940s.[72]: 109  "The Story of Jazz" was to go into production in December 1941.[69]: 119–120 

Mercury Productions purchased the stories for two other segments—"My Friend Bonito" and "The Captain's Chair"—from documentary filmmaker Robert J. Flaherty.[69]: 33, 326  Adapted by Norman Foster and John Fante, "My Friend Bonito" was the only segment of the original It's All True to go into production.[72]: 109  Filming took place in Mexico September–December 1941, with Norman Foster directing under Welles's supervision.[69]: 311 

In December 1941, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs asked Welles to make a film in Brazil that would showcase the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro.[70]: 65  With filming of "My Friend Bonito" about two-thirds complete, Welles decided he could shift the geography of It's All True and incorporate Flaherty's story into an omnibus film about Latin America—supporting the Roosevelt administration's Good Neighbor policy, which Welles strongly advocated.[69]: 41, 246  In this revised concept, "The Story of Jazz" was replaced by the story of samba, a musical form with a comparable history and one that came to fascinate Welles. He also decided to do a ripped-from-the-headlines episode about the epic voyage of four poor Brazilian fishermen, the jangadeiros, who had become national heroes. Welles later said this was the most valuable story.[19]: 158–159 [38]: 15 

Required to film the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro in early February 1942, Welles rushed to edit The Magnificent Ambersons and finish his acting scenes in Journey into Fear. He ended his lucrative CBS houses for rent in salem mo show[71]: 189  February 2, flew to Washington, D.C., for a briefing, and then lashed together a rough cut of Ambersons in Miami with editor Robert Wise.[19]: 369–370  Welles recorded the film's narration the night before he left for South America: "I went to the projection room at about four in the morning, did the whole thing, and then got on the plane and off to Rio—and the end of civilization as we know it."[19]: 115 

Welles left for Brazil on February 4 and began filming in Rio on February 8, 1942.[19]: 369–370  At the time it did not seem that Welles's other film projects would be disrupted, but as film historian Catherine L. Benamou wrote, "the ambassadorial appointment would be the first in a series of turning points leading—in 'zigs' and 'zags,' rather than in a straight line—to Welles's loss of complete directorial control over both The Magnificent Ambersons and It's All True, the cancellation of his contract at RKO Radio Studio, the expulsion of his company Mercury Productions from the RKO lot, and, ultimately, the total suspension of It's All True.[69]: 46 

In 1942 RKO Pictures underwent major changes under new management. Nelson Rockefeller, the primary backer of the Brazil project, left its board of directors, and Welles's principal sponsor at RKO, studio president George Schaefer, resigned. RKO took control of Ambersons and edited the film into what the studio considered a commercial format. Welles's attempts to protect his version ultimately failed.[66][74] In South America, Welles requested resources to finish It's All True. Given a limited amount of black-and-white film stock and a silent camera, he was able to finish shooting the episode about the jangadeiros, but RKO refused to support further production on the film.

"So I was fired from RKO," Welles later recalled. "And they made a great woodstock chimes reviews point of the fact that I had gone to South America without a script and thrown all this money away. I never recovered from that attack."[75]: 188  Later in 1942, woodstock chimes reviews RKO Pictures began promoting its new corporate motto, "Showmanship In Place of Genius: A New Deal at RKO",[70]: 29  Welles understood it as a reference to him.[75]: 188 

Radio (1942–43)[edit]

Welles performs a card trick for Carl Sandburg before the War Bond drive broadcast I Pledge America (August 1942).

Welles leaves his Army physical after being judged unfit for military service (May 6, 1943).

Welles returned to the United States August 22, 1942, after more than six months in South America.[19]: 372  A week after his return[76][77] he produced and emceed the first two hours of a seven-hour coast-to-coast War Bond drive broadcast titled I Pledge America. Airing August 29, 1942, on the Blue Network, the program was presented in cooperation with the United States Department of the Treasury, Western Union (which wired bond subscriptions free of charge) and the American Women's Voluntary Services. Featuring 21 dance bands and a score of stage and screen and radio stars, the broadcast raised more than $10 million—more than $146 million today[78]—for the war effort.[79][80][81][82][83][84]

On October 12, 1942, Cavalcade of America presented Welles's radio play, Admiral of the Ocean Sea, an entertaining and factual look at the legend of Christopher Columbus.

"It belongs to a period when hemispheric unity was a crucial matter and many programs were being devoted to the common heritage of the Americas," wrote broadcasting historian Erik Barnouw. "Many such programs were being translated into Spanish and Portuguese and broadcast to Latin America, to counteract many years of successful Axis propaganda to that area. The Axis, trying to stir Latin America against Anglo-America, had constantly emphasized the differences between the two. It became the job of American radio to emphasize their common experience and essential unity."[85]: 3 

Admiral of the Ocean Sea, also known as Columbus Day, begins with the words, "Hello Americans"—the title Welles would choose for his own series five weeks later.[19]: 373 

Hello Americans, a CBS Radio series broadcast November 15, 1942 – January 31, 1943, was produced, directed and hosted by Welles under the auspices of the Woodstock chimes reviews of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs. The 30-minute weekly program promoted inter-American understanding and friendship, drawing upon the research amassed for the ill-fated film, It's All True.[86] The series was produced concurrently with Welles's other CBS series, Ceiling Unlimited (November 9, 1942 – February 1, 1943), sponsored by the Lockheed-Vega Corporation. The program was conceived to glorify the aviation industry and dramatize its role in World War II. Welles's shows were regarded as significant contributions to the war effort.[51]: 64 

Throughout the war Welles worked on patriotic radio programs including Command Performance, G.I. Journal, Mail Call, Nazi Eyes on Canada, Stage Door Canteen and Treasury Star Parade.

The Mercury Wonder Show[edit]

Main article: The Mercury Wonder Show

In early 1943, the two concurrent radio series (Ceiling Unlimited, Hello Americans) that Orson Welles created for CBS to support the war effort had ended. Filming also had wrapped on the 1943 film adaptation of Jane Eyre and that fee, in addition to the income from his regular guest-star roles in radio, made it possible for Welles to fulfill a lifelong dream. He approached the War Assistance League of Southern California and proposed a show that evolved into a big-top spectacle, part circus and part magic show. He offered his services as magician and director,[87]: 40  and invested some $40,000 of his own money in an extravaganza he co-produced with his friend Joseph Cotten: The Mercury Wonder Show for Service Men. Members of the U.S. armed forces were admitted free of charge, while the general public had to pay.[88]: 26  The show entertained more than 1,000 service members each night, and proceeds went to the War Assistance League, a charity for military service personnel.[89]

The development of the show coincided with the resolution of Welles's oft-changing draft status in May 1943, when he was finally declared 4-F—unfit for military service—for a variety of medical reasons. "I felt guilty about the war," Welles told biographer Barbara Leaming. "I was guilt-ridden about my civilian status."[90]: 86  He had been publicly hounded about his patriotism since Citizen Kane, when the Hearst press began persistent inquiries about why Welles had not been drafted.[70]: 66–67 [91][92]

The Mercury Wonder Show ran August 3 – September 9, 1943, in an 80-by-120-foot tent[89] located at 900 Cahuenga Boulevard, in the heart of Hollywood.[19]: 377 [88]: 26 

At intermission on September 7, 1943, KMPC radio interviewed audience and cast members of The Mercury Wonder Show—including Welles and Rita Hayworth, who were married earlier that day. Welles us bank high yield savings account that The Mercury Wonder Show had been performed for approximately 48,000 members of the U.S. armed forces.[19]: 378 [38]: 129 

Radio (1944–45)[edit]

The idea of doing a radio variety show occurred to Welles after his success as substitute host of four consecutive episodes (March 14 – April 4, 1943) of The Jack Benny Program, radio's most popular show, when Benny contracted pneumonia on a performance tour of military bases.[22]: 368 [94] A half-hour variety show broadcast January 26 – July 19, 1944, on the Columbia Pacific Network, The Orson Welles Almanac presented sketch comedy, magic, mindreading, music and readings from classic works. Many of the shows originated on U.S. military camps, where Welles and his repertory company and guests entertained the troops with a reduced version of The Mercury Wonder Show.[51]: 64 [95][96] The performances of the all-star jazz group Welles brought together for the show were so popular that the band became a regular feature and was an important force in reviving interest in traditional New Orleans jazz.[97]: 85  Welles was placed on the U.S. Treasury payroll on May 15, 1944, as an expert consultant for the duration of the war, with a retainer of $1 a year.[98] On the recommendation of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau asked Welles to lead the Fifth War Loan Drive, which opened June 12 with a one-hour radio show on all four networks, broadcast from Texarkana, Texas. Including a statement by the President,[99] the program defined the causes of the war and encouraged Americans to buy $16 billion in bonds to finance the Normandy landings and the most violent phase of World War II. Welles produced additional war loan drive broadcasts on June 14 from the Hollywood Bowl, and June 16 from Soldier Field, Chicago.[22]: 371–373  Americans purchased $20.6 billion in War Bonds during the Fifth War Loan Drive, which ended on July 8, 1944.[100]

Welles campaigned ardently for Roosevelt in 1944. A longtime supporter and campaign speaker for FDR, he occasionally sent the president ideas and phrases that were sometimes incorporated into what Welles characterized as "less important speeches".[22]: 372, 374  One of these ideas was the joke in what came to be called the Fala speech, Roosevelt's nationally broadcast September 23 address to the International Teamsters Union which opened the 1944 presidential campaign.[24]: 292–293 [101]

Welles campaigned for the Roosevelt–Truman ticket almost full-time in the fall of 1944, traveling to nearly every state[22]: 373–374  to the detriment of his own health[24]: 293–294  and at his own expense.[12]: 219  In addition to his radio addresses he filled in for Roosevelt, opposite Republican presidential nominee Thomas E. Dewey, at The New York Herald Tribune Forum broadcast October 18 on the Blue Network.[19]: 386 [24]: 292  Welles accompanied FDR to his last campaign rally, speaking at an event November 4 at Boston's Fenway Park before 40,000 people,[24]: 294 [102] and took part in a historic election-eve campaign broadcast November 6 on all four radio networks.[19]: 387 [67]: 166–167 

On November 21, 1944, Welles began his association with This Is My Best, a CBS radio series he would briefly produce, direct, write and host (March 13 – April 24, 1945).[103][104] He wrote a political column called Orson Welles' Almanac (later titled Orson Welles Today) for The New York Post January–November 1945, and advocated the continuation of FDR's New Deal policies and his international vision, particularly the establishment of the United Nations and the cause of world peace.[70]: 84 

On April 12, 1945, the day Franklin D. Roosevelt died, the Blue-ABC network marshalled its entire executive staff and national leaders to pay homage to the late president. "Among the outstanding programs which attracted wide attention was a special tribute delivered by Orson Welles", reported Broadcasting magazine.[105] Welles spoke at 10:10 p.m Eastern War Time, from Hollywood, and stressed the importance of continuing FDR's work: "He has no need for homage and we who loved him have no time for tears . Our fighting sons and brothers cannot pause tonight to mark the death of him whose name will be given to the age we live in."[106]

Welles presented another special broadcast on the death of Roosevelt the following evening: "We must move on beyond mere death to that free world which was the hope and labor of his life."[19]: 390 [52]: 242 

He dedicated the April 17 episode of This Is My Best to Roosevelt and the future of America on the eve of the United Nations Conference on International Organization.[19]: 390 [103][104] Welles was an advisor and correspondent for the Blue-ABC radio network's coverage of the San Francisco conference that formed the UN, taking place April 24 – June 23, 1945. He presented a half-hour dramatic program written by Ben Hecht on the opening day of the conference, and on Sunday afternoons (April 29 – June 10) he led a weekly discussion from the San Francisco Civic Auditorium.[107][108]

The Stranger[edit]

Main article: The Stranger (1946 film)

Director and star Orson Welles at work on The Stranger(October 1945)

In the fall of 1945 Welles began work on The Stranger (1946), a film noir drama about a war crimes investigator who tracks a high-ranking Nazi fugitive to an idyllic New England town. Edward G. Robinson, Loretta Young and Welles star.[109]

Producer Sam Spiegel initially planned to hire director John Huston, who had rewritten the screenplay by Anthony Veiller. When Huston entered the military, Welles was given the chance to direct and prove himself able to make a film on schedule and under budget[38]: 19 —something he was so eager to do that he accepted a disadvantageous contract. One of its concessions was that he would defer to the studio in any creative dispute.[22]: 379 [24]: 309–310 

The Stranger was Welles's first job as a film director in four years.[19]: 391  He was told that if the film was successful he could sign a four-picture deal with International Pictures, making films of his own choosing.[22]: 379  Welles was given some degree of creative control,[38]: 19  and he endeavored to personalize the film and develop a nightmarish tone.: 2:30  He worked on the general rewrite of the script and wrote scenes at the beginning of the picture that were shot but subsequently cut by the woodstock chimes reviews He filmed in long takes that largely thwarted the control given to editor Ernest J. Nims under the terms of the contract.: 15:45 

The Stranger was the first commercial film to use documentary footage from the Nazi concentration camps.[19]: 189 [111] Welles had seen the footage in early May 1945: 102:03  in San Francisco,[112]: 56  as a correspondent and discussion moderator at the UN Conference on International Organization.[24]: 304  He wrote of the Holocaust footage in his syndicated New York Post column May 7, 1945.[112]: 56–57 

Completed a day ahead of schedule and under budget,[22]: 379–380 The Stranger was the only film made by Welles to have been a bona fide box office success upon its release. Its cost was $1.034 million; 15 months after its release it had grossed $3.216 million.[113] Within weeks of the completion of the film, International Pictures backed out of its promised four-picture deal with Welles. No reason was given, but the impression was left that The Stranger would not make money.[22]: 381 

Around the World[edit]

Main article: Around the World (musical)

In the summer of 1946, Welles moved to New York to direct the Broadway musical Around the World, a stage adaptation of the Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days with a book by Welles and music by Cole Porter. Producer Mike Todd, who would later produce the successful 1956 film adaptation, pulled out from the lavish and expensive production, leaving Welles to support the finances. When Welles ran out of money he convinced Columbia Pictures president Harry Cohn to send enough money to continue the show, and in exchange Welles promised to write, produce, direct and star in a film for Cohn for no further fee. The stage show soon failed due to poor box-office, with Welles unable to claim the losses on his taxes.[114]

Radio (1946)[edit]

In 1946, Welles began two new radio series—The Mercury Summer Theatre of the Air for CBS, and Orson Welles Commentaries for ABC. While Mercury Summer Theatre featured half-hour adaptations of some classic Mercury radio shows from the 1930s, the first episode was a condensation of his Around the World stage play, and is the only record of Cole Porter's music for the project. Several original Mercury actors returned for the series, as well as Bernard Herrmann. Welles invested his earnings into his failing stage play. Commentaries was a political vehicle for him, continuing the themes from his New York Post column. Again, Welles lacked a clear focus, until the NAACP brought to his attention the case of Isaac Woodard. Welles brought significant attention to Woodard's cause.[115]

The last broadcast of Orson Welles Commentaries on October 6, 1946, marked the end of Welles's own radio shows.[19]: 401 

The Lady from Shanghai[edit]

Main article: The Lady from Shanghai

The film that Welles was obliged to make in exchange for Harry Cohn's help in financing the stage production Around the World was The Lady from Shanghai, filmed in 1947 for Columbia Pictures. Intended as a modest thriller, the budget skyrocketed after Cohn suggested that Welles's then-estranged second wife Rita Hayworth co-star.

Cohn disliked Welles's rough cut, particularly the confusing plot and lack of close-ups, and was not in sympathy with Welles's Brechtian use of irony and black comedy, especially in a farcical courtroom scene. Cohn ordered extensive editing and re-shoots. After heavy editing by the studio, approximately one hour of Welles's first cut was removed, including much of a climactic confrontation scene in an amusement park funhouse. While expressing displeasure at the cuts, Welles was appalled particularly with the musical score. The film was considered a disaster in America at the time of release, though the customer service bank of america small business shootout in a hall of mirrors (the use of mirrors being a recurrent motif of Welles') has since become a touchstone of film noir. Not long after release, Welles and Hayworth finalized their divorce.

Although The Lady from Shanghai was acclaimed in Europe, it was not embraced in the U.S. until decades later, where it is now often regarded as a classic of film noir.[116] A similar difference in reception on opposite sides of the Atlantic, followed by greater American acceptance, befell the Welles-inspired Chaplin film Monsieur Verdoux, originally to be directed by Welles starring Chaplin, then directed by Chaplin with the idea credited to Welles.

Macbeth[edit]

Main article: Macbeth (1948 film)

Prior to 1948, Welles convinced Republic Pictures to let him direct a low-budget version of Macbeth, which featured highly stylized sets and costumes, and a cast of actors lip-syncing to a pre-recorded soundtrack, one of many innovative cost-cutting techniques Welles deployed in an attempt to make an epic film from B-movie resources. The script, adapted by Welles, is a violent reworking of Shakespeare's original, freely cutting and pasting lines into new contexts via a collage technique and recasting Macbeth as a clash of pagan and proto-Christian ideologies. Some voodoo trappings of the famous Welles/Houseman Negro Theatre stage adaptation are visible, especially in the film's characterization of the Weird Sisters, who create an effigy of Macbeth as a charm to enchant him. Of all Welles's post-Kane Us bank walmart productions, Macbeth is stylistically closest to Citizen Kane in its long takes and deep focus photography.

Republic initially trumpeted the film as an important work but decided it did not care for the Scottish accents and held up general release for almost a year after early negative press reaction, including Life's comment that Welles's film "doth foully slaughter Shakespeare."[117] Welles left for Europe, while co-producer and lifelong supporter Richard Wilson reworked the soundtrack. Welles returned and cut 20 minutes from the film at Republic's request and recorded narration to cover some gaps. The film was decried as a disaster. Macbeth had influential fans in Europe, especially the French poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau, who hailed the film's "crude, irreverent power" and careful shot design, and described the characters as haunting "the corridors jose abreu mvp some dreamlike subway, an abandoned coal mine, and ruined cellars oozing with water."[118]

Europe (1948–1956)[edit]

In Italy he starred as Cagliostro in the 1948 film Black Magic. His co-star, Akim Tamiroff, impressed Welles so much that Tamiroff would appear in four of Welles's productions during the 1950s and 1960s.

The following year, Brinks money prepaid card starred as Harry Lime in Carol Reed's The Third Man, alongside Joseph Cotten, his friend and co-star from Citizen Kane, with a script by Graham Greene and a memorable score by Anton Karas.

A few years later, British radio producer Harry Alan Towers would resurrect the Lime character in the radio series The Adventures of Harry Lime.

Welles appeared as Cesare Borgia in the 1949 Italian film Prince of Foxes, with Tyrone Power and Mercury Theatre alumnus Everett Sloane, and as the Mongol warrior Bayan in the 1950 film version of the novel The Black Rose (again with Tyrone Power). [119]

Othello[edit]

Main article: Othello (1951 film)

During this time, Welles was channeling his money from acting jobs into a self-financed film version of Shakespeare's play Othello. From 1949 to 1951, Welles worked on Othello, filming on location in Italy and Morocco. The film featured Welles's friends, Micheál Mac Liammóir as Iago and Hilton Edwards as Desdemona's father Brabantio. Suzanne Cloutier starred as Desdemona and Campbell Playhouse alumnus Robert Coote appeared as Iago's associate Roderigo.

Filming was suspended several times as Welles ran out of funds and left for acting jobs, accounted in detail in MacLiammóir's published memoir Put Money in Thy Purse. The American release prints had a technically flawed soundtrack, suffering from a dropout of sound at every quiet moment. Welles's daughter, Beatrice Welles-Smith, restored Othello in 1992 for a wide re-release. The restoration included reconstructing Angelo Francesco Lavagnino's original musical score, which was originally inaudible, and adding ambient stereo sound effects, which were not in the original film. The restoration went on to a successful theatrical run in America.

In 1952, Welles continued finding work in England after the success of the Harry Lime radio show. Harry Alan Towers offered Welles another series, The Black Museum, which ran for 52 weeks with Welles as host and narrator. Director Herbert Wilcox offered Welles the part of the murdered victim in Trent's Last Case, based on the novel by E. C. Bentley. In 1953, the BBC hired Welles to read an hour of selections from Walt Whitman's epic poem Song of Myself. Towers hired Welles again, to play Professor Moriarty in the radio series, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring Commercial property management services mildura Gielgud and Ralph Richardson.

Welles briefly returned to America to make his first appearance on television, starring in the Omnibus presentation of King Lear, broadcast live on CBS October 18, 1953. Directed by Peter Brook, the production costarred Natasha Parry, Beatrice Straight and Arnold Moss.[120]

In 1954, director George More O'Ferrall offered Welles the title role in the 'Lord Mountdrago' segment of Three Cases of Murder, co-starring Alan Badel. Herbert Wilcox cast Welles as the antagonist in Trouble in the Glen opposite Margaret Lockwood, Forrest Tucker and Victor McLaglen. Old friend John Huston cast him as Father Mapple in his 1956 film adaptation of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, starring Gregory Peck.

Mr. Arkadin[edit]

Main article: Mr. Arkadin

Welles in Madrid during filming of Mr. Arkadinin 1954

Welles's next turn as director was the film Mr. Arkadin (1955), which was produced by his political mentor from the 1940s, Louis Dolivet. It was filmed in France, Germany, Spain woodstock chimes reviews Italy on a very limited budget. Based loosely on several episodes of the Harry Lime radio show, it stars Welles as a billionaire who hires a man to delve into the secrets of his past. The film stars Robert Arden, who had worked on the Harry Lime series; Welles's third wife, Paola Mori, whose voice was dubbed by actress Billie Whitelaw; and guest stars Akim Tamiroff, Michael Redgrave, Katina Paxinou and Mischa Auer. Frustrated by his slow progress in the editing room, producer Dolivet removed Welles from the project and finished the film without him. Eventually, five different versions of the film would be released, two in Spanish and three in English. The version that Dolivet completed was retitled Confidential Report. In 2005 Stefan Droessler of the Munich Film Museum oversaw a reconstruction of the surviving film elements.

Television projects[edit]

In 1955, Welles also directed two television series for the BBC. The first was woodstock chimes reviews Welles' Sketch Book, a series of six 15-minute shows featuring Welles drawing in a sketchbook to illustrate his reminiscences for the camera (including such topics as the filming of It's All True and the Isaac Woodard case), and the second was Around the World with Orson Welles, a series of six travelogues set in different locations around Europe (such as Vienna, the Basque Country between France and Spain, and England). Welles served as host and interviewer, his commentary including documentary facts and his own personal observations (a technique he would continue to explore in later works).

During Episode 3 of Sketchbook, Welles makes a deliberate attack on the abuse of police powers around the world. The episode starts with him telling the story of Isaac Woodard, an African-American veteran of the South Pacific during World War II being falsely accused by a bus driver of being drunk and disorderly, who then has a policeman remove the man from the bus. Woodard is not arrested right away, but rather he is beaten into unconsciousness nearly to the point of death and when he finally regains consciousness he is permanently blinded. By the time doctors from the US Army located him three weeks later, there was nothing that could be done. Welles assures the audience that he personally saw to it that justice was served to this policeman although he doesn't mention what type of justice was delivered. Welles then goes on to give other examples of police being given more power and authority than is necessary. The title of this episode is "The Police".

In 1956, Welles completed Portrait of Gina. He left the only copy of it in his room at the Hôtel Ritz in Paris. The film cans would remain in a lost-and-found locker at the hotel for several decades, where they were discovered in 1986, after Welles's death.

Return to Hollywood (1956–1959)[edit]

Welles the magician with Lucille Ball in I Love Lucy(October 15, 1956)

In 1956, Welles returned to Hollywood.[121]

He began filming a projected pilot for Desilu, owned by Lucille Ball and her husband Desi Arnaz, who had recently purchased the former RKO studios. The film was The Fountain of Youth, based on a story by John Collier. Originally deemed not viable as a pilot, the film was not aired until 1958—and won the Peabody Award for excellence.

Welles guest starred on television shows including I Love Lucy.[122] On radio, he was narrator of Tomorrow (October 17, 1956), a nuclear holocaust drama produced and syndicated by ABC and the Federal Civil Defense Administration.[123][124]

Welles's next feature film role was in Man in the Shadow for Universal Pictures in 1957, starring Jeff Chandler.

Touch of Evil[edit]

Main article: Touch of Evil

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orson_Welles

Holiday Gift Guides For Everyone On Your List (With Stuff Under $19 & Even $9)

Every year it feels like we’re the last bloggers in all of blogland to get our gift guide up (is it me or are they coming out earlier and earlier?!), but the deed is done! We just do one post with three categories (adults, kids, and under $25), so here it is. We love including small makers and Black-owned businesses as well as some tried & true items from larger companies that we’ve bought & loved (like a favorite book, family game, etc) so let’s get into it.

Young House Love Holiday Gift Guide 2021 Main Collage

Gifts For Grown-Ups

Here’s what we’re loving, either firsthand items that we’ve bought and enjoyed ourselves, things we’re getting for friends & family, or items that we’re hoping to find under the tree ourselves (hint, hint John).

Young House Love Holiday <i>Woodstock chimes reviews</i> for Grown-Ups Collage 2021
  1. These rose goldbirthstone rings feel so special and her reviews are stellar ($50)
  2. I want this “Distracted By Plants” shirt & know 7 friends who’d also want it ($14)
  3. Oprah put what is an investment banker and what do they do chic Linen Wireless Charger on her fav. things list. Sold! ($40)
  4. I own this crystal suncatcher. It’s a rainbow-making work of art ($34)
  5. So into with these celestial charm necklackes by one of my fav. makers ($36)
  6. Nedra Tawwab’s Set Boundaries, Find Peace is such a great read ($18)
  7. This set of 2 ceramic rainbow wind chimes are like a smile for your yard ($84)
  8. A wooden engraved watch feels so dapper & personal ($41+)
  9. I bought & love this small crossbody bag (so many colors! $70)
  10. This personalized wood recipe binder becomes a family heirloom ($25+)
  11. Weird flex but I love this sunscreen so much I want more in my stocking ($34)
  12. This bluetooth speaker is our go-to beach music player (many colors! $33)
  13. John’s fav 2021 read, Home Before Dark is for fans of ghost stories & The Haunting Of Hill House.
  14. I personally own this Fitbit Luxe and I LUXE IT. Jk, but I love it ($100)
  15. I have at least 2 brothers-in-law who’d love this hot sauce making kit ($53)
  16. My favorite steamer ($60) and fabric shaver ($12) make my life easier! Practical gifts for the win.
  17. This monogrammed clutch feels personal & comes in lots of colors ($39)
  18. I personally own a bank of the west san dimas ca of Helobirdie prints and they’re beautiful. ($26)
  19. I own this reversible tote (the brown/black) & it goes with everything! ($45)
  20. Look how sweet these personalized wooden dog ornaments are ($15)

Gifts For Kids

Here are a bunch of ideas for the little ones in your life. We own and love many of these ourselves – or they’re items that we’re buying our kids or considering for other little friends & cousins.

Young House Love Holiday Gifts for Kids Collage 2021
  1. Our son recently loved this Rock Painting Kit. Great rainy day activity! ($15)
  2. 50 Adventures in 50 States is beautiful and packed with fun facts ($14)
  3. We own & love this surfer beach toy. The waves “surf” it back to you! ($25)
  4. We gave our kids What Do You Meme? Family Editionlast year and it has been a favorite ever since ($20)
  5. This Popper Purse pops, carries stuff, & is burger-shaped. Win-win-win. ($9)
  6. The Shashibo Fidget Cube is a shape-shifting magnetica box that our son played with forever at a friend’s house! So Grammy’s getting him one this year ($25)
  7. Kids can assemble this DIY Kaleidoscope Kit and then put different things in the viewfinder to see what shapes and patterns they make ($45)
  8. Our kids love Buildzi & it’s from the makers of Tenzi – another fav of ours ($28)
  9. Tween me would’ve loved thispersonalized neon sign so much ($30)
  10. These Africanswaddle blankets are just beautiful ($22)
  11. This Dogs With Jobs Puzzle is hilarious and fun ($14)
  12. I’ve adored these HarperIman dolls for years. Beautiful & soft. ($35)
  13. We got our kids this ladder golf set after they played it at a friends’ house for hours. The “golf balls” are rubber, so you fear less for heads & windows ($29)
  14. I read Dress Coded and loved it. Great for 7-9th graders & parents alike ($15)
  15. Our kids make videos in the pool & gulf with this underwater camera ($66)
  16. Our daughter’s getting this cozy 7lb llama-tastic kids weighted blanket ($55)
  17. This crochet kit is a fun new craft to learn that ends with a stuffed animal! ($25)
  18. We bought these light-up slap bracelets for night walks, but the kids make up tons of games with them too. And they’re only about $2 each! ($14 for 6)
  19. We love this series of Alphabet Legends Books that highlight legendary people from all walks of life. Click that link to see all the awesome categories of legends that they have! ($20)
  20. These cheeky enamel pet tags crack us up. One says “Have your people call my people” and they even have a hamburger! ($28)

Gifts Under $25

This is my favorite category every year because you know I love a deal – and so many of these still feel special and personal. There are even a few items under $10 that would make great stocking stuffers, neighbor gifts, or white elephant ideas.

Young House Love Holiday Gifts for Grown-Ups Collage 2021
  1. These sweet soy arch candles are just $9 each! I think I’m in love.
  2. We own this $9 two-pack of soft airPod cases to distinguish mine from Johns. There are tons of color combos & they’re under $5 each!
  3. I own this dots planter ($22) – pair it witha hard-to-kill plant ($16)
  4. This monogram necklace is just $20 and feels so delicate and personalized.
  5. Is this $14 “Spreadsheet” Mug a John gift or what?! Their shop has a bunch of options & designs.
  6. We own & love this $10 s’mores roasting sticks set & friends always ask us where we got ’em (they’re reusable & retractable!)
  7. We ordered this $20ten-pack of color flame packs to spice up our firepit nights with some magical colors.
  8. I love my disco ball for the fun reflections & these colors are so good! ($18)
  9. These $16 gold hoop earrings are gorgeous & this small shop has rave reviews.
  10. I bought this $10 rainbow-making window sticker & love it. HUGE RAINBOWS!
  11. This $12 “Too Peopley Outside” mug is for those no bones days. Fill it with candy or hot cocoa for extra credit.
  12. For under $20 you can turn a furry friend into a verrry fancy custom renaissance pet portrait.
  13. I read People We Meet On Vacation & loved it. Light & easy & I LOLed ($10)
  14. We own & love a Magic Puzzle – it shape shifts into a 2nd design! ($20)
  15. “That’s What She Said” Game ($25) is a fun game night addition for fans of Cards Against Humanity
  16. These gold coin necklaces are so beautiful and many of them are just $23!
  17. This $19 “tea shirt” t-shirt would be perfect for my friend Albie ;)
  18. I bought this $25 Bernie felt ornament & it makes me laugh every time I see it.
  19. I own & love a bunch of these $20 Jar Candles (every scent’s great & they last!)
  20. These $14 turkish towels come in tons of colors & feel like a vacation!

Psst – To see last year’s lists, a lot of which is still linked & for sale, click here – and to check out our Black-owned business roundup (which has over 500 highly recommended shops!) click here.

*This post contains affiliate links, so we may earn a small commission when you make a purchase through some of the links on our site at no additional cost to you.

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Filed Under: Holiday & Entertaining, Shopping & Thrifting

Источник: https://www.younghouselove.com/holiday-gift-guides-2021/

Read Our In-Depth Reviews

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Clive Harris

Nature's Melody Windchimes Review

Specifications

  • Material: Aluminium
  • Colour: Black
  • Precision Tuned: Yes
  • Number of Tubes: 6
  • Number of Bells: Not listed

Clive Harris

It’s always nice to find a good quality item that’s made using responsibly sourced materials; these Nature’s Melody Windchimes make a very relaxing, melodical sound, and have powder-coated aluminium construction made from recycled metal.

Whereas other wind chimes can create a discordant ‘clashing’ of notes if too many chimes play at the same time, these particular chimes are tuned to the pentatonic scale of C meaning all notes harmonize with each other.

If you’re the sort of person who has been known to wince at the sound of small, tinkling, wind chimes in the past, these larger chimes (which each measure approximately 60 cm) create a fuller, more meditative sound.

The whole unit, including the windcatcher pendant that hangs below the chimes, measures 105 cm in total.

We’re not, therefore, talking about a small and subtle piece, so, if you have got a small garden, it might be worth considering if these relatively large chimes will be too dominating.

They hang with a sturdy ‘S’ hook, which has an opening of around 4.5 cm, and can be placed over tree branches, hooked onto a pagoda, or suspended by a ring. It’s very practical in terms of hanging, but again, worth considering in advance if you have sufficient space for such a large wind chime.

In terms of appearance, they look very contemporary, with a black and silver finish that doesn’t call too much attention in the garden. They are relaxing and aesthetically pleasing without being distracting.

Pros

  • Attractive design that makes a stylish statement in your garden
  • Produces a gentle and melodic sound even in very strong winds
  • Durable and great quality - made entirely of recycled aluminium

Cons

  • At 105 cm in length, this wind chime may be too large for smaller gardens
  • Although easy to hang, the size can make finding a location for this wind chime tricky
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Clive Harris

Woodstock Encore Bronze Chimes of Neptune Review

Specifications

  • Material: Aluminium, wood
  • Colour: Bronze
  • Precision Tuned: Yes
  • Number of Tubes: 6
  • Number of Bells: Not listed

Clive Harris

Whilst you might have to pay more for high-quality wind chimes, it’s generally better to do that than just pick out the cheapest option. In particular, your ears will thank you!

These Woodstock Encore Bronze Chimes of Neptune may seem a little pricey, but a lot of work has gone into making them sound as good as they do. As a company, Woodstock is renowned for creating some of the best wind chimes; this isn’t just some metal knocked together in a woodstock chimes reviews – there’s a lot of musical theory at work.

Woodstock Chimes is owned by Garry Kvistad – a GRAMMY award winning musician – who created chimes that use a 7th century pentatonic scale. As a result, these chimes not only sound harmonious when playing together, they also create quite a unique melody.

Appearance-wise, this wind chime is strikingly decorative in the garden. The unit is large, measuring 137 cm in total, with chimes of up to 60 cm long, and the bronze colouring is complementary – it looks just as good against greenery as it does brickwork and concrete.

Made with a wooden base, and aluminium tubes, this is a well-structured wind chime – it’s quite heavy, so won’t end up on the floor easily by accident; however, more than just a gentle breeze is needed to start it sounding. Whether this is right for you therefore depends on personal preference; some people prefer a heavier chime that doesn’t make noise all the time.

Whilst these wind chimes are hardwearing and suitable for outside use, they should be brought in during very stormy or windy weather. They are quite large after all, and they may damage the structure or tree that you hang them from if they blow off.

They come with a small metal hanging hoop, so you’ll need to provide a hook or similar to hang them most places in the garden. If you have visions of hanging them from a tree, you’ll have to buy or make an ‘S’ hook to hook the hoop on to.

Pros

  • The sound is low, mellow and soothing
  • Won’t disturb your neighbours as the sound doesn’t travel too far
  • Has a large and eye-catching design that looks beautiful in most gardens

Cons

  • Very large which can make finding it difficult to find a location to hang it
  • As it is heavy, this wind chime won’t make a sound unless the wind is fairly strong
  • May not make enough noise for some people, especially if you have a sheltered garden
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Clive Harris

Woodstock Chimes Large Bells of Paradise Review

Specifications

  • Material: Aluminium
  • Colour: Rainforest green
  • Precision Tuned: Musically tuned
  • Number of Tubes: 6
  • Number of Bells: Not listed

Clive Harris

If you have a more sheltered garden, it might be hard to persuade some bigger chimes to ring out when there’s not enough breeze. If this is the case, these Woodstock Chimes Large Bells of Paradisemight be better suited to your space.

The paddle attached to the central string is quite large, and this seems to help these chimes catch the wind better than others of a similar weight.

At 109 cm long in total, the chimes themselves are a little smaller than the other large units here, measuring approximately 50 cm. They’re technically ‘forest green’, although the colour is so dark it could be mistaken for black, and all of the metal components are made from santander ma routing number six tubes create a relaxing, harmonious melody with no jarring note combinations. In fact, the tuning of this particular ‘Bells of Paradise’ chime is based on an ancient system known as ‘just intonation’; the frequencies at which the different tubes vibrate are related to one another by simple whole-number ratios meaning they always sound good together.

In terms of appearance, the dark chimes and silver components look contemporary yet subtle, they can be a centrepiece in the garden if you wish, but are equally well suited to attractively sitting on the sidelines.

No hanging hook is included, which seems a little poor for the price, but this does mean that you can choose whether you want to use a ‘S’ hook or hanging loop depending on the space available in your garden.

Pros

  • Produces a deep and calming sound
  • Won’t disturb your neighbours as the sound doesn’t travel particularly far
  • Beautiful design with a natural green finish

Cons

  • Setting it up is slightly fiddly
  • There is no S hook or hanging ring included so a separate purchase is needed
  • Takes a strong breeze for this chime to make a sound due to the heavy build
  • Some customers may prefer a wider selection of colours
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Clive Harris

Agirlgle Wind Chime Review

Specifications

  • Material: Pine wood, brass tubes
  • Colour: Rainbow coloured tubes
  • Precision Tuned: No
  • Number of Tubes: 7
  • Number of Bells: 16

Clive Harris

Colourful accessories aren’t for everyone, but if you’re someone who likes having pops of colour around the garden, these bright Agirlgle Wind Chimes are a fun way to get a rainbow of colours in.

They’re smaller than the other chimes featured here, at 73 cm long, so make quite a good choice for gardens with a bit less space as well – their overall width is 15 cm meaning you don’t need a lot of room to hang them.

In general, these chimes are a lot lighter than the bigger options on this list, weighing just under 900 g; if there’s some particularly windy weather it might be an idea to take them in from the garden so that they don’t get blown around. But, in general, they’re suitable for outdoor (as well as indoor) use.

They aren’t tuned, unlike the more expensive Woodstock and Nature’s Melody models, and also have a higher pitch due to their smaller size.

Therefore, it depends what you’re looking for from your chimes:

If you’re keen to have some small chimes as an ornament in the garden, which will make a pleasant sound without being jarring, this is a great choice; however, if you’re after more sophisticated tones and a deeper timbre, these may not be the best wind chimes for you.

Pros

  • Unusual design with colourful tubes
  • Can be used both indoors and out
  • Produces a beautiful relaxing chime

Cons

  • The design may not suit some gardens
  • At 73cm, it can be tricky to find a location for this chime
  • Some customers have commented that this is louder than others, and in strong winds may disturb neighbours
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Clive Harris

Bits and Pieces Tea Cup Wind Chimes Review

Specifications

  • Material: Ceramic
  • Colour: Periwinkle blue
  • Precision Tuned: Not listed
  • Number of Tubes: 0
  • Number of Bells: Not listed

Clive Harris

We’re a nation of tea lovers, that’s for sure.

So, in many ways, perhaps there’s no wind chime more appropriate than the Bits and Pieces Tea Cup Wind Chimes… a quirky way to demonstrate our appreciation for a brew, whilst creating a soothing ambience to enjoy a cuppa in.

This chime is an eclectic mix of wind chime and ornament, featuring several different items hanging from a large teacup and saucer. A milk pitcher, coffee pot, spoon, fork, and a collection of mini teapots, all hang suspended from the central point.

It’s certainly very reminiscent of Alice in Wonderland, and something that will look great in a kitchen as well as outside. The majority of the items are made from blue-painted ceramic, so whilst relatively durable, they probably shouldn’t be left hanging in the garden during any strong winds.

At 45 cm long, it’s big enough to make a statement without commanding too much space – plus it’s the sort of thing that is contemporary enough to look good in a modern interior, but also sufficiently vintage to work in more traditional surroundings.

Whilst some noise is gained from the spoon and fork gently knocking against the ceramic models, this is predominantly more of a visual ornament than a full wind chime. If you’re after soothing meditative sounds, there are better choices on the market, but there’s no denying that this is the best wind chime for tea aficionados.

It’s also the sort of unusual item that would make a great gift; it’s as equally suited to those who love tea as to those who love unique decorations.

Pros

  • Customers love the quirky teacup design
  • Looks beautiful both outside and hanging in the kitchen near a window
  • At 43cm, this wind chime is smaller than others on the market, which gives you more flexibility when it comes to the location

Cons

  • Some users find it’s best for indoor use as it’s a little flimsy in strong winds
  • Only available in blue, some customers may prefer a different colour
  • The sound isn’t quite as soothing or relaxing as others on the market
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How to Choose The Best Wind Chime

A wind chime is a beautiful addition to any garden, creating a soothing and sometimes even meditative atmosphere.

In parts of Asia, wind chimes are thought of as good luck and, depending on where they are hung, are believed to open up career opportunities and bring positivity to your home.

They add to the ambience of outdoor spaces, with their pleasing aesthetic and gentle, relaxing tones.

Finding a windchime that you like can be tricky, especially if you can’t hear them before you buy. But there are some things that it’s worth knowing, that can help you find the best windchime for you:

The Sound of Your Wind Chime

One of the most difficult things about buying a windchime is not being able to hear what sound it makes before you purchase it – particularly when shopping online.

So, how can you be sure that you’re going to get something you like, when can you refinance a car loan with capital one looking at a picture of a wind chime on a website?

Firstly, the size of the windchime will offer some clues on the depth of sound that it will have. Longer, thicker pipes create lower notes, whilst smaller ones will ‘jangle’ more like a bell.

If the chimes are made from wood, the noise will be more subtle and muted, whereas metal chimes will make more of a definitive sound.

Specifically Tuned Windchimes

Many wind chimes have been specifically tuned so that the notes complement each other.

If you’re nervous about your wind chime not sounding good, go for a tuned design. This way you’ll know for sure that all the notes will sound harmonious with each other.

For example, chimes like the Nature’s Melody Windchimes have been tuned to a pleasing pentatonic scale.

When chimes are tuned to a pentatonic scale, all of the notes sound great together no matter how many are ringing at the same time. There will be no jarring clashing because it’s not possible for them to produce a discordant combination of notes.

Another technique, used to design the Woodstock Chimes Large Bells of Paradise, is called “just intonation”.

Wind chimes that use “just intonation” have been tuned to whole-number ratios. Basically, again, this means each of the chimes sounds harmonious when played alone or with other chimes and each note compliments the rest.

If there is a particular pentatonic scale that you like, you can likely find some wind chimes made in that scale. Equally, if you find a wind chime online and notice that it is tuned to a specific pentatonic scale (for example, the pentatonic scale of ‘C’), you can even search the scale online to have a listen and see if you like it.

Hopefully the above information has given you more confidence in the process of buying wind chimes online. The overall take away is that you can still have some understanding of how the chimes will sound even if you can’t listen to them.

Choosing a Good Design

Wind chimes are available in a huge variety of designs, ranging from traditional, to contemporary, to some pretty out-there styles!

If you have a certain ‘theme’ in your garden, you’re sure to find a chime which suits the aesthetic you’re going for. If not, you can really let your imagination run wild and choose anything you like.

Of course, you still need to consider the sound – you might find a wind chime that looks good aesthetically, but if it’s not tuned in a way that you like, you could start to hate its discordant melody.

Wind chimes come in a range of sizes, from miniature to giant, so you can choose if you want to make a statement in your garden, or have something more subtle on the side lines.

Depending on the style of your garden, you might decide that a wooden or metal wind chime looks better. There are really no rules, it just depends on the aesthetic you’re going for.

Some wind chimes look very contemporary, so if you’re worried about ending up with something too ‘kitsch’, there are a lot of modern options to choose from.

Equally, you can go for something more quirky and ornamental, like the Bits and Pieces Tea Cup Wind Chimes – these wind chimes are slightly more focused on bringing a certain aesthetic to the space rather than a specific sound.

Number and Size of Chimes

The number as well as the size of chimes can affect the sound of your wind chime.

Longer wind chimes tend to produce a lower tone, whilst shorter ones produce high-pitched sounds. Bigger chimes are generally heavier and will need more wind to set them ringing, whilst lightweight chimes make a noise in even the gentlest puff of wind.

You might want to be able to hear the chimes almost all the time, or only occasionally. So choosing a lighter or heavier design respectively will help you achieve this.

When it comes to the number of chimes, most wind chimes have either 6, 7, 8, or 9. More chimes will naturally give more note variety, but can sound a little more hectic. A few well-tuned chimes will create a simpler sound. If you want to try to achieve more time between lots of notes sounding, less chimes may help achieve this.

Whatever size wind chime you go for, it’s recommended to bring it in during particularly windy or stormy weather. Larger chimes may woodstock chimes reviews damage to branches in bad weather, and all wind chimes could get tangled and damages if they fall.

Choosing the Right Material

If you’re planning on hanging wind chimes in your garden, they should be designed to be left outside. Therefore, quality, durable materials are key.

Sealed wood, aluminium and bamboo are all popular options for outdoor wind chimes. They last well and don’t get damaged easily. The suspension cords also need to be sturdy even in relatively strong winds. Of course, you can always bring the wind chimes in if the weather conditions are getting a little too lively.

Wind chimes made of more delicate materials such as glass or ceramic are best placed in covered areas like porches or covered patios. These chimes tend to be quite ornamental and may break if they are knocked around too much.

When it comes to the quality and timbre of the sound, the wind chime’s construction material will also affect this.

Metal chimes can be precision tuned, which is less common with wooden chimes. As mentioned above, chimes tuned to a specific scale are extremely melodic and harmonious.

If you prefer a more natural, resonant sound, opt for a bamboo wind chime. These wind chimes create quite ‘earthy’ sounds, and are less finely tuned than metal ones, which can be nice for creating gentle background ambiance.

Chimes made from glass or ceramic are lovely to look at, but don’t produce as melodic a sound as metal or bamboo.

Wind Chime Maintenance

The maintenance of your wind chimes will depend on the material it is made from.

In general, ensure your wind chimes are not exposed to severe weather, such as storms and gales as these may cause damage.

Also, position your wind chime where it is not subjected to intense sunlight for long periods. Sunlight can cause fading and drying out of components such as wooden rings and windcatchers.

Most wind chimes can be simply cleaned with water and a mild detergent. This will get them looking like new as well as remove any mould or dirt. A gentle detergent is all that is required to maintain aluminium parts and will also keep glass and ceramics sparkling.

You can protect wooden parts by regularly applying a thin layer of Danish oil or a protective varnish. This will seal the wood against moisture as well as preventing it from drying out in hot, sunny weather.

It’s also recommended to bring your wind chimes indoors during winter. Or at least move them to a very sheltered area such as a porch. If bad weather causes the chime to move about too much, a lot of strain will be put on the cords and make them susceptible to breakage.

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Wind Chime FAQs

How should I hang my wind chime to make the most of its sound?

Most quality wind chimes are designed to begin chiming in wind speed of around 6-10 miles per hour.

To help your wind chime make the most of the breeze, hang it in a place where the wind can reach it from as many directions as possible. If you hang a high-quality, heavy wind chime in too protected an area it will not receive enough wind to chime. The higher you hang your wind chime, the more breeze is likely to get.

The ideal place to hang your wind chime may vary at different times of the year, so you might want to move the chime seasonally.

Will a wind chime scare birds away?

Whilst a wind chime might initially scare birds away due to it being a ‘new’ sound in the garden, as soon as they get used to the noise they’ll be back. If you’re worried about a wind chime stopping birds from visiting your garden, you should notice that visitor numbers are as normal after a couple of weeks.

What is the purpose of a wind chime?

Traditionally, wind chimes were used to scare away evil spirits and bad luck. Different cultures use wind chimes for different purposes, woodstock chimes reviews in parts of Asia they are thought to bring positivity to the home.

There are many different reasons to have a wind chime in the home, and they are great when used for decoration and relaxation. The gentle sound can reduce stress and add a personal touch to your garden.

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This Article Was a Team Effort!

Источник: https://diygarden.co.uk/best-wind-chimes/
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