how to say i m home in japanese

You can say: 彼に恋している。 “I am in love with him”. But you cannot say. Translations in context of "Hi, I'm home" in English-French from Reverso Context: Hi, I'm home! You could answer, "Nasa bahay ako" (I'm home). 'in your home,' so you say "Nasa bahay ako," "narito ako sa bahay," "nandito sa bahay.".

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In English, we start a lot of our sentences with “I’m…“, so it’s only natural that you want to know how to sayI amin Japanese. However, after living in Japan I found that translatingI am…” is rather complicated because there are a bunch of words that meanI” and it is common to leave out the “I” or “I am” part when speaking Japanese. Here is, for example, how to sayI am Alex” in Japanese.

“Watashi” (私) is the generic Japanese word for “I” and is usually followed by the particle は (wa) to form sentences starting with “I am…”. So for example “Watashi wa Arekusu desu” (私はアレクスです) means “I am Alex”. However, it is common and more natural to omit “Watashi wa” and just say “Arekusu desu”.

If that was too fast, don’t worry! Below you will find the detailed answer of how to sayI’m…in Japanese and we will also cover the differences betweenwatashi (wa)“, “boku (wa)“, “ore (wa)“, and the other Japanese words that meanI“. You can also read the in-depth explanation of why you shouldn’t usewatashi (wa)” (私は) aka “I am” when speaking Japanese.

How to Say “I am” in Japanese

The formal and most common way to say “I am…” in Japanese is “Watashi wa … desu” (私は〇〇です). Watashi (私) means “I“, wa (は) is the topic particle which marks what the speaker wants to talk about, and desu (です), the last word, is the polite copula that can be translated as “am“, “is“, or “are“.

Watashi wa ___ snhu bankmobile refund schedule am ____.

This is a basic and kinda useful sentence structure to introduce or talk about yourself. So here are a few more example sentences that illustrate how you can use “Watashi wa ___ desu” to say things like “I’m (name)“, “I’m (age) years old“, or “I’m a/an (occupation)“.

Watashi wa Sakura desu.
私は桜です。
I’m Sakura.

Watashi wa juusan sai desu.
私は十三歳です。
I’m 13 years old.

Watashi wa isha desu.
私は医者です。
I’m a doctor.

However, please note that not all English how to say i m home in japanese that start with “I am ___” or “I’m ___” can be translated like this.

The English expression “I’m home“, for example, translates into “Tadaima” (ただいま), one of the many greetings used to say “hello” in Japanese. And, “I’m sorry” is either “Gomen” (ごめん) or the politer “Gomen nasai” (ごめんなさい) in Japanese.

Tadaima.
ただいま。
I’m home.

Gomen (nasai)
ごめん(なさい)
I’m sorry.

It also often happens that “I am ___” just translates as “Watashi wa ___” (私は〇〇) without the desu (です) at the end. Or, the informal and more declarative copula da (だ) is used instead of it.

Watashi wa nemui.
私は眠い。
I am tired.

Watashi wa nemui desu.
私は眠いです。
I am tired (more polite)

Watashi wa nemui da.
私は眠いだ。
I’m tired! (more casual)

Another good example is the present continuous “I am ___ing” because you can’t add desu (です) after a verb.

Watashi wa hashitteiru.
私は走っている。
I am running.

Watashi wa oyoideiru.
私は泳いでいる。
I’m swimming.

So always keep in mind that “Watashi wa ___ (desu)” (私は〇〇です) is just a basic Japanese sentence structure that can be used to translate a few but not all English sentences that start with “I am ___“.

On top of that, it is actually more common and natural to omitWatashi (wa)entirely in Japanese. It’s so counter-intuitive that it can be one of the hardest things to wrap your mind around when learning Japanese. Take a deep breath and let’s look into it!

Why You Shouldn’t Use “Watashi (wa)”

Whenever it is clear that the topic or subject of a sentence is “I” it is common to leave out that part of the Japanese sentence and omitwatashi wa” (私は). While generally speaking, it is grammatically correct to use the full sentence including “Watashi wa”, it is not natural in spoken Japanese.

So, when we look at the English sentence “I am (name)” it literally translates as “Watashi wa (name) desu” (私は〇〇です). However, in a Japanese conversation, especially in a casual setting with friends, it is way more natural to just say “(Name) desu” (〇〇です).

Watashi wa Arekusu desu.
私はアレクスです。
I am Alex (not natural)

Arekusu desu.
アレクスです。
I am Alex (natural)

And this is actually true for all the sentences we have covered so far. In a Japanese conversation it is way more natural to just say:

Juusan sai desu.
十三歳です。
I’m 13 years old.

Nemui.
眠い。
I am tired.

Nemui desu.
眠いです。
I am tired (more polite)

Hashitteiru.
走っている。
I am running.

Feels strange? I know! It took me so long to get used to this.

I am also fully aware that all the Japanese textbooks and probably your Japanese teacher, too, use the “Watashi wa ___ desu” (私は〇〇です) sentence structure. And if you ask them they will probably say you have to (or should) use “Watashi wa ___“, because it is correct. And they are not wrong. It is not wrong! But also, it is not natural.

After living here in Tokyo for more than 6 years I know that none of my Japanese friends and none of my coworkers useWatashi wa” (or “Anata”) when the topic and/or subject are clear.

So please believe me when I try to convince you to omitwatashi wa” (私は) in order to speak natural Japanese.

Watashi vs Boku vs Ore – How to say i m home in japanese the Difference?

Watashi (私) is not the only Japanese word that can be used to say “I“, “I am ___” or “I’m ___“.

There is the politer version which is watakushi (私), the semi-formal boku (僕) which is often used by young males, the feminine sounding atashi (あたし) which is sometimes used by girls, and the rather rough ore (俺), which you can often hear when watching anime. All of these Japanese words mean “I”.

So instead of “Watashi wa ___ desu” (私は〇〇です), you could also say “Atashi wa ___ desu” (あたしは〇〇です) or “Boku wa ___ desu” (僕は〇〇です), for example.

Atashi wa Sakura desu.
あたしわ桜です。
I’m Sakura.

Boku wa juusan sai desu.
僕は十三歳です。
I’m 13 years old.

You need to be a bit careful, though!

Watashi (私) is the gender-neutral word for “I” that can be used in any situation.

Atashi (あたし), on the other hand, should only be used by females and only in casual situations, while boku (僕) is most commonly used by young males in formal and informal situations. Sometimes men might use it in casual situations, too.

In the chart below you will find the most common words that can be used to sayI” how to say i m home in japanese Japanese and see by whom and in which situations they how to say i m home in japanese usually used.

watashi私、わたしgender-neutralany situation
watakushi私、わたくしgender-neutral (polite)formal situations
boku僕、ぼくmasculineformal and casual situations
ore俺、おれmasculine (sounds rough)only with your close friends
atashiあたしfemininecasual situations
atakushiあたくしfeminine (polite)casual situations

How to Say “Yes I’m” in Japanese

In Japanese “Hai, sou desu” (はい、そうです) is the common expression that is used to say “Yes, I am“. It literally translates as “Yes, that is right” or “Yes that is true” and depending on the situation it can also be translated as “Yes, I do“, “Yes, it is“, “Yes, she is“, and “Yes, he is“.

So, for example, when someone asks you the question “Are you a student?” (学生ですか) you can confirm it and say “Yes I am” by saying “Hai, sou desu” (はい、そうです) in Japanese.

Gakusei desu ka?
学生ですか?
Are you a student?

Hai, sou desu.
はい、そうです。
Yes, I am.

There are also two more casual versions that can be used. The first one is “Hai, sou da” (はい、そうだ) and the second one is “Hai, sou da yo!” (はい、そうだよ). Both phrases translate as “Yes, I am” but they sound more casual and also more empathic or enthusiastic. So only use them with friends.

Hai, sou desu.
はい、そうです。
Yes, I am. (polite)

Hai, sou da!
はい、そうだ!
Yes, I am. (casual)

Hai, sou da yo!
はい、そうだよ!
Yes, I am! (more casual)

Источник: https://www.alexrockinjapanese.com/how-to-say-i-am-in-japanese-dont-use-watashi-wa/

How to Say Hello in Japanese

Knowing how to say hello in Japanese is easy to learn and essential before visiting Japan, and could come in handy in other settings closer to home as well.

Not only will knowing a little of the Japanese language bring a few smiles, it demonstrates respect and an interest in the local culture. Learning a few words of the local language is always a great way to better connect with a place.

Japanese is actually easier to learn than other tonal Asian languages such as Mandarin, Vietnamese, and Thai. Plus, knowing how to bow the right way to a Japanese person rather than awkwardly trying to return an unexpected bow adds a lot of confidence. Even if you aren't completely sure how to do this, not returning someone's bow is very disrespectful.

Honorifics in the Japanese Language

Just as you probably wouldn't offer a casual “hey man, what's up?” to your boss or an elderly person, Japanese greetings come in varying levels of formality depending on the amount of respect you wish to demonstrate.

Japanese culture is steeped in honorific traditions and hierarchies depending on age, social status, and relation. Even husbands and wives use honorifics when speaking to each other.

Greetings in Japanese and bowing etiquette are all a part of a complex system that applies the rules of saving face. You should always strive to avoid accidentally embarrassing or demoting someone in a way that causes them to "lose face."

Although using the incorrect honorific can be a serious faux pas, fortunately, there is an easy default to use when not sure. Adding "-san" to the end of a name (first or last) is typically acceptable for any gender in both formal and informal situations, assuming someone is roughly your equal in age and status. The English equivalent could be "Mr." or "Mrs. / Ms."

How to Say Hello in Japanese

Konnichiwa (pronounced: “kon-nee-chee-wah”) is the basic way to say hello in Japanese; however, it is mostly heard in the afternoon. Konnichiwa is utilized as a respectful-yet-generic way to say hello to pretty much anyone, friend or otherwise.

Konnichiwa was once part of a greeting sentence (today is…); however, its use has transformed the expression in modern times as a shortened way to simply say hello. The English equivalent could perhaps be similar to saying "good day" no matter the actual time of day.

Basic Japanese Greetings

Although you can get by with the basic greeting of konnichiwa, just as when saying hello in Malay, Japanese people are more likely to use different greetings based on the time of day. Holidays and special how to say i m home in japanese such as birthdays have their own set of greetings.

Basic Japanese greetings differ widely, depending on the time:

  • Good morning:Ohayou gozaimasu (pronounced: "oh-hi-oh goh-zai-mas") The greeting can be shortened by just saying how to say i m home in japanese (sounds like the way to pronounce the U.S. state of Ohio), however, this is very informal, much as you would offer a simple “morning” to a friend.
  • Good afternoon:Konnichiwa (pronounced: "kon-nee-chee-wah")
  • Good evening:Konbanwa (pronounced: "kon-bahn-wah")
  • Good night:Oyasumi nasai (pronounced: "oy-yah-sue-mee nah-sigh")

Note: Although not tonal, the Japanese language does utilize a pitch accent system. Words are spoken with different pitches depending upon the region. The Tokyo accent is considered Standard Japanese and is the one you should use for learning pronunciations. But don't expect words you've learned to sound the exact same in different parts of the country!

Asking "How Are You?" in Japanese

The formal and polite way to ask “how are you doing?” in Japanese is with o-genki desu ka? (pronounced: "oh-gain-kee des-kah"). The "u" at the end of desu is silent.

To reply politely that you are doing fine, use watashi wa genki desu (pronounced: wah-tah-shee wah gain-kee des). Alternatively, you can just say genki desu (pronounced: gain-kee des). Follow both replies with arigato (pronounced: "ar-ee-gah-toh"), which means “thanks.” Say arigato! with enthusiasm and like you mean it.

You can then ask anatawa? (pronounced: "ahn-nah-taw-wah") which means “and you?”

There are a few informal ways to ask the same question:

  • What's up?Nannika atta (pronounced: "nah-nee-kah-tah")
  • What's new?Kawatta koto aru (pronounced: "ka-wah-tah koto ar-ew")
  • How is everything?Dou shiteru (pronounced: "doh-stair-ew")

An informal, casual reply to a friend could be aikawarazu desu (pronounced: "eye-kah-wah-raz des") or “same as usual.” The cool kids love this one.

Bowing in Japan

Although knowing how to say hello in Japanese is mostly straightforward, the ins and outs of bowing can be bewildering at first to Westerners. Don't be surprised if your new Japanese friend offers a handshake to save you the potential embarrassment of not knowing how to bow.

If you find yourself in a formal occasion where bows are exchanged — don't panic! First, remember that Japanese people don't really expect Westerners to have a detailed knowledge of their customs and etiquette. They will be pleasantly surprised if you demonstrate some cultural knowledge. In a pinch, a casual nod of the head will suffice in place of a bow if you're totally frozen!

Regardless, to show respect, you must do something to acknowledge someone's bow. Give it a shot!

How to Bow in Japan

Men bow with their arms straight, hands at their sides or along the legs, fingers straight. Women typically bow with their hands clasped in front of them.

Keep your back straight, and bend at the waist with your eyes downward. The longer and deeper the bow, the more respect shown. Always bow deeper to elders and people in positions of authority. If unsure, simply maintain your bow slightly longer and how to say i m home in japanese than the one you received.

A casual bow consists of bending approximately 15 degrees at the waist. A bow to strangers or to thank someone would go to around 30 degrees. The most formal bow to show apology or extreme respect requires bending to around 45 degrees, where you are looking completely at your shoes.

Tip: Unless you're a martial artist squaring up against an opponent, don't maintain eye contact as you bow! This can be viewed as an act of mistrust or even aggression.

In a formal greeting, sometimes bows are exchanged over and over; you may wonder when it's safe to not return the last bow! Each consecutive bow should be quicker and less deep than the last until both parties come to the conclusion that enough respect has been shown.

Sometimes a bow is coupled with a Western-style handshake — doing both at the same time can be awkward! If you're in a tight space or standing close after shaking hands, turn slightly to the left so that you don't bump heads.

After all the bows and greetings have been exchanged, you may be given a business card. Receive the card with both hands, hold at the corners, read it carefully, and treat it with the utmost respect! Jamming someone's card into your back pocket is a serious no-no in Japanese business etiquette.

Saying "Cheers" in Japanese

Now that you know how to say hello in Japanese, you'll want to know how to say "cheers" for when your newly met friends want to go for a drink. Japanese drinking etiquette is a study all of its own, but here are the two most important things to know:

  1. The way to say cheers in Japanese is with an enthusiastic kanpai! (pronounced: "gahn-pie!").
  2. The right way to pronounce sake (the drink) is "sah-keh," not "sak-key" as is often heard.

Thanks for letting us know!

Источник: https://www.tripsavvy.com/how-to-say-hello-in-japanese-1458398

Anime Lyrics. Com

Original / Romaji LyricsEnglish Translation
Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
sabitsuita kokoro
oto mo nai sekai, nani wo miteru no?
mata ne wo ieru kao wo sagasu yo
sore wo kurikaesu dake

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
What does a heart encrusted in rust see
in a still and soundless world?
Looking for someone who looks like they can say, "I'll see you again",
I only end up repeating this over and over again.

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
ki tsukeba soko ni wa
hitorikiri de naku ushiro sugata
tsurai youna
sabishii youna basho

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
Once you take notice, there's
the silhouette of someone's back, crying all alone
In a heartrending,
lonesome place.

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
te wo tsunaideitainda

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
I want to remain with my hand entwined in yours

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
nando me no kimochi darou
koko ni aru nukumori wa
machigai demo kamawanai, soba ni iru koto
namida no oto, tameiki no iro
ima, tashikameru genzaichi

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
How many times have I felt
the warmth here in this very place?
Even if I've only mistaken being by your side, I don't mind
The sound of our tears and the colour of our sighs
Now ascertain where we are now

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
joudan mitai na mainichi
mitai, mitai, mirai

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
The distraction of an everyday routine
is something that I want, I want to see, even in the future

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
tsuyogari no koe mo kasureta na to
yume ni ochiru no
kakaeta hiza
me wo otosu to
sugu ni kuzureteshimaisou de

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
When I think how my voice, full of false bravado, has cracked
I find myself surrendering to the dream world
When I hold my knees close and
cast my gaze downward
Suddenly I feel like I'm going to crumble

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
kono mama, kono mama
futarikiri kakekomu tooi deguchi
mada kitaishiteiruno. saa
waratte mitsumeaunda

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
At this rate, at this rate,
The distant exit we dash toward together
is still within reach.  Now, let us
smile and gaze into each other

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
tanjun de mujaki na kao
kushakusha no omoi daite
mayoi konda basho sae yasashisugite

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
Your guileless, innocent face
bears a jumble and medley of feelings
Even when you've lost your own way, you remain too kind

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
nando demo namae wo yobu yo
futashika na mirai demo
hanasenai mono, omou dake kokoro ga itai yo
koko ni iru yo
koko ni iru yo
kaeru basho wa koko da yo?

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
I call out your name again and again
Even if the future is uncertain
It pains me just to think of what I can't let go
I'm right here
I'm right here
You know there is always a place for you to return to, here

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
itsu datte kawaranai
omoi wo nokosu no

Lyrics from Animelyrics.com
And that'll never change
With these feelings that remain

Источник: https://www.animelyrics.com/

11 Japanese Words That Say More Than English Ever Could

東京美光

東京美光

Japanese pronouns

Grammatical feature of Japanese

Japanese pronouns (or Japanese deictic classifiers) are words in the Japanese language used to address or refer to present people or things, where present means people or things that can be pointed at. The position of things (far away, nearby) and their role in the current interaction (goods, addresser, addressee, bystander) are features of the meaning of those words. The use of pronouns, especially when referring to oneself and speaking in the first person, vary between gender, formality, dialect and region where Japanese is spoken.

Use and etymology[edit]

In contrast to present people and things, absent people and things can be referred to by naming; for example, by instantiating a class, "the house" (in a context where there is only one house) and presenting things in relation to the present, named and sui generis people or things can be "I'm going home", "I'm going to Miyazaki's place", "I'm going to the mayor's place", "I'm going to my mother's place" or "I'm going to my mother's friend's place". Functionally, deictic classifiers not only indicate that the referenced person or thing has a spatial position or an interactional role but also classify it to some extent. In addition, Japanese pronouns are restricted by a situation type (register): who is talking to whom about what and through which medium (spoken or written, staged or in private). In that sense, when a male is talking to his male friends, the pronoun set that is available to him is different from those available when a man of the same age talks to his wife and, vice versa, when a woman talks to her husband. These variations in pronoun availability are determined by the register.

In linguistics, generativists and other structuralists suggest that the Japanese language does not have pronouns as such, since, unlike pronouns in most other languages that have them, these words are syntactically and morphologically identical to nouns.[1][2] As functionalists point out, however, these words function as personal references, demonstratives, and reflexives, just as pronouns do in other languages.[3][4]

Japanese has a large number of pronouns, differing in use by formality, gender, age, and relative social status of speaker and audience. Further, pronouns are an open class, with existing nouns being used as new pronouns with some frequency. This is ongoing; a recent example is jibun (自分, self), which is now used by some young men as a casual first-person pronoun.

Pronouns are used less frequently in the Japanese language than in many other languages,[5] mainly because there is no grammatical requirement to include the subject in a sentence. That means that pronouns can seldom be translated from English to Japanese on a one-to-one basis.

The common English personal pronouns, such as "I", "you", and "they", have no other meanings or connotations. However, most Japanese personal pronouns do. Consider for example two words corresponding to the English pronoun "I": 私 (watashi) also means "private" or "personal". 僕 (boku) carries a masculine impression; it is typically used by males, especially those how to say i m home in japanese their youth.[6]

Japanese words that refer to other people are part of the encompassing system of honorific speech and should be understood within that context. Pronoun choice depends on the speaker's social status (as compared to the listener's) as well as the sentence's subjects and objects.

The first-person pronouns (e.g., watashi, 私) and second-person pronouns (e.g., anata, 貴方) are used in formal contexts (however the latter can be considered rude). In many sentences, pronouns that mean "I" and "you" are omitted in Japanese when the meaning is still clear.[3]

When it is required to state the topic of the sentence for clarity, the particle wa (は) is used, but it is not required when the topic can be inferred from context. Also, there are frequently used verbs that imply the subject and/or indirect object of the sentence in certain contexts: kureru (くれる) means "give" in the sense that "somebody other than me gives something to me or to somebody very close to me." Ageru (あげる) also means "give", but in the sense that "someone gives something to someone other than me." This often makes pronouns unnecessary, as they can be inferred from context.

In Japanese, a speaker may only directly express their own emotions, as they cannot know the true mental state of anyone else. Thus, in sentences comprising a single adjective (often those ending in -shii), it is often assumed that the speaker is the subject. For example, the adjective sabishii (寂しい) can represent a complete sentence that means "I am lonely." When speaking of another person's feelings or emotions, sabishisō (寂しそう) "seems lonely" would be used instead. Similarly, neko ga hoshii (猫が欲しい) "I want a cat," as opposed to neko wo hoshigatte iru (猫を欲しがっている) "seems to want a cat," when referring to others.[7] Thus, the first-person pronoun is usually not used unless the speaker wants to put a special stress on the fact that they are referring to themselves or if it is necessary to make it clear.

In some contexts, it may be considered uncouth to refer to the listener (second person) by a pronoun. If it is required to state the second person, the listener's surname, suffixed with -san or some other title (like "customer", "teacher", or "boss"), is generally used.

Gender differences in spoken Japanese also create another challenge, as men and women refer to themselves with different pronouns. Social standing also determines how people refer to themselves, as well as how they refer to other people.

Japanese first-person pronouns by speakers and situations according to Yuko Saegusa, Concerning the First Personal Pronoun of Native Japanese Speakers (2009)

SpeakerSituation123
Female To friends uchi 49%First name 26%atashi 15%
In the family First name 33%atashi 29%uchi 23%
In a class watashi 86%atashi 7%uchi 6%
To an unknown visitor watashi 75%atashi, first name, uchi 8% each
To the class teacher watashi 66%First name 13%atashi 9%
Male To friends ore 72%boku 19%First name 4%
In the family ore 62%boku 23%uchi 6%
In a class boku 85%ore 13%First name, nickname 1% each
To an unknown visitor boku 64%ore 26%First name 4%
To the class teacher boku 67%ore 27%First name 3%

List of Japanese personal pronouns[edit]

The list is incomplete, as there are numerous Japanese pronoun forms, which vary by region and dialect. This is a list of the most commonly used forms. "It" has no direct equivalent in Japanese[3] (though in some contexts the demonstrative pronoun それ (sore) is translatable as "it"). Also, Japanese does not generally inflect by case, so, I is equivalent to me.

RomajiHiraganaKanjiLevel of speech Gender Notes
– I/me –
watashiわたし formal/informal all In formal or polite contexts, this is gender neutral; in casual speech, it is typically only used by women. Use by men in casual contexts may be perceived as stiff.
watakushiわたくし very formal all The most formal personal pronoun. Outdated curriculums did not provide for any other kind of pronoun in everyday speech for foreigners, except for watakushi.[8] But in modern student books, such a pronoun has been withdrawn from use.[9]
wareわれ 我, 吾 very formal all Used in literary style writing. Also used as rude second person in western dialects.
wagaわが 我が very formal all Means "my" or "our". Used in speeches and formalities; 我が社 waga-sha (our company) or 我が国 waga-kuni (our country).
oreおれ informal males Frequently used by men.[10] Establishes a sense of "masculinity". Can be seen as rude depending on the context. Emphasizes one's own status when used with peers and with those who are younger or of lesser status. Among close friends or family, its use conveys familiarity rather than "masculinity" or superiority. It was used also by women until the late Edo period and still is in some dialects. Also oi in Kyushu dialect.
bokuぼく formal/informal males Used by males of all ages; very often used by boys. Perceived as humble, but can also carry an undertone of "feeling young" when used by males of older age. Also used when casually giving deference; "servant" uses the same kanji (僕shimobe). Can also be used as a second-person pronoun toward male children (English equivalent – "kid" or "squirt").
washiわし formal/informal mainly males Often used in western dialects and fictional settings to stereotypically represent characters of old age. Also wai, a slang version of washi in the Kansai dialect.
jibunじぶん 自分 formal/informal mainly males Literally "oneself"; used as either reflexive or personal pronoun. Can convey a sense of distance when used in the latter way. Also used as casual second person pronoun in the Kansai dialect.
ataiあたい very informal females Slang version of あたし atashi.[11]
atashiあたし informal females (but see notes) A feminine pronoun that strains from わたし ("watashi"). Rarely used in written language, but common in conversation, especially among younger women. It was formerly used by male members of the merchant and artisan classes in the Edo area and continues to be used by male rakugo performers.
atakushiあたくし informal females A feminine pronoun that strains from わたくし ("watakushi").
uchiうち 家, 内 informal mostly females Means "one's own". Often used in western dialects especially the Kansai dialect. Generally written in kana. Plural form uchi-ra is used by both genders. Singular form is also used by both sexes when talking about the household, e.g., "uchi no neko" ("my/our cat"), "uchi no chichi-oya" ("my father"); also used in less formal business speech to mean "our company", e.g., "uchi wa sandai no rekkāsha ga aru" ("we (our company) have three tow-trucks"). Famous as constantly used by Urusei Yatsura character Lum Invader when referring to herself in the first person.
(own name) informal all Used by small children and young women; considered cute and childish.
oiraおいら informal males Similar to 俺 ore, but more casual. Evokes a person with a rural background, a "country bumpkin".
oraおら informal all Dialect in Kanto and further north. Similar to おいら oira, but more rural. Famous as used by main characters in Dragon Ball and Crayon Shin-chan among children. Also ura in some dialects.
wateわて informal all Dated Kansai dialect. Also ate (somewhat feminine).
shōseiしょうせい 小生 formal, written males Used among academic colleagues. Lit. "your pupil".[12]
– you (singular) –
(name and honorific) formality depends on the honorific used all
anataあなた 貴方, 貴男, 貴女 formal/informal all The kanji are very rarely used. The only second person pronoun comparable to English "you", yet still not used as often in this universal way by native speakers, as it can be considered having a condescending undertone, especially towards superiors.[3][10][better source needed] For expressing "you" in formal contexts, using the person's name with an honorific is more typical. More commonly, anata may be used when having no information about the addressed person; also often used as "you" in commercials, when not referring to a particular person. Furthermore, commonly used by women to address their husband or lover, in a way roughly equivalent to the English "dear".
antaあんた informal all Contraction of あなた anata.[11] Can express contempt, anger or familiarity towards a person. Generally seen as rude or uneducated when used in formal contexts.
otakuおたく お宅, 御宅 formal, polite all A polite way of saying "your house", also used as a pronoun to address a person with slight sense of distance. Otaku/otakki/ota turned into a slang term referring to a type of geek/obsessive hobbyist, how to say i m home in japanese they often addressed each other as otaku.
omaeおまえ お前 very informal all Similar to anta, but used by men with more frequency.[10] Expresses the speaker's higher status or age, or a very casual relationship among peers. Often used with おれ ore.[10] Very rude if said to elders. Commonly used by men to address their wife or lover, paralleling the female use of "anata".
temē, temaeてめえ,
てまえ
手前 rude and confrontational[11]mainly males Literal meaning "the one in front of my hand". Temē, a reduction of temae, is more rude. Used when the speaker is very angry. Originally used for a humble first person. The Kanji are seldom used with this meaning, as unrelated to its use as a pronoun, 手前 can also mean "before", "this side", "one's standpoint" or "one's appearance".
kisamaきさま 貴様 extremely hostile and rude mainly males Historically very formal, but has developed in an ironic sense to show the speaker's extreme hostility / outrage towards the addressee.
kimiきみ informal all The kanji means "lord" (archaic) and is also used to write -kun.[13] Informal to subordinates; can also be affectionate; formerly very polite. Among peers typically used with 僕 boku.[10] Often seen as rude or assuming when used with superiors, elders or strangers.[10]
kikaきか 貴下 informal, to a younger person all
kikanきかん 貴官 very formal, used to address government officials, military personnel, etc. all
on-shaおんしゃ 御社 formal, used to the listener representing your company all only used in spoken language.
ki-shaきしゃ 貴社 formal, similar to onshaall only used in written language as opposed to onsha
– he / she –
ano kataあのかた あの方 very formal all Sometimes pronounced ano hou, but with the same kanji. 方 means "direction," and is more formal by avoiding referring to the actual person in question.
ano hitoあのひと あの人 formal/informal all Literally "that person".
yatsuやつ informal all A thing (very informal), dude, guy.
koitsu, koyatsuこいつ, こやつ 此奴 very informal, implies contempt all Denotes a person or material nearby the speaker. Analogous to "he/she" or "this one".
soitsu, soyatsuそいつ, そやつ 其奴 very informal, implies contempt all Denotes a person or material nearby the listener. Analogous to "he/she" or "that one".
aitsu, ayatsuあいつ, あやつ 彼奴 very informal, implies contempt all Denotes a person or (less frequently) material far from both the speaker and the listener. Analogous to "he/she" or "that one".
– he –
kareかれ formal (neutral) and informal (boyfriend) all Can also mean "boyfriend". Formerly 彼氏 kareshi was its equivalent, but this now always means "boyfriend".[citation needed] Literally meaning "that one", in classical Japanese it could mean "he", "she", or "it".[14]
– she –
kanojoかのじょ 彼女 formal (neutral) and informal (girlfriend) all Originally created in the 19th century as an equivalent to female pronouns in European languages. Initially pronounced kano onna, it literally means "that female".[15] Can also mean "girlfriend".[16]
– we (see also list of pluralising suffixes, below)
ware-wareわれわれ 我々 formal all Mostly used when speaking on behalf of a company or group.
ware-raわれら 我等 informal all Used in literary style. ware is never used with -tachi.
hei-shaへいしゃ 弊社 formal and humble all Used when representing one's own company. From a Sino-Japanese word meaning "low company" or "humble company".
waga-shaわがしゃ 我が社 formal all Used when representing one's own company.
– they (see also list of pluralising suffixes, below)
kare-raかれら 彼等 common in spoken Japanese and writing all

Archaic personal pronouns[edit]

RomajiHiraganaKanjiMeaning Level of speech Gender Notes
asshiあっし I males Slang version of watashi. From the Edo period.
sesshaせっしゃ 拙者 I males Used by samurai during the feudal ages (and often also by ninja in fictionalized portrayals). From a Sino-Japanese word meaning "one who is clumsy".
wagahaiわがはい 我が輩, 吾輩 I males Literally "my fellows; my class; my cohort", but used in a somewhat pompous manner as a first-person singular pronoun.
soregashiそれがし I males Literally "So-and-so", a nameless expression. Similar to sessha.
warawaわらわ I females Literally "child". Mainly used by women in samurai families. Today, it is used in fictional settings to represent archaic noble female characters.
wachikiわちき I females Used by geisha and oiran in Edo period. Also あちき achiki and わっち wacchi.
yo余, 予 I males Archaic first-person singular pronoun.
chinちん I males Used only by the emperor, mostly before World War II.
maroまろ 麻呂, 麿 I males Used as a universal first-person pronoun in ancient times. Today, it is used in fictional settings to represent Court noble male characters.
onoreおのれ I or you males The word onore, as well as the kanji used to transcribe it, literally means how to say i m home in japanese. It is humble when used as a first person pronoun and hostile (on the level of てめえ temee or てまえ temae) when used as a second person pronoun.
keiけい you males Second person pronoun, used mostly by males. Used among peers to denote light respect, and by a superior addressing his subjects and retainers in a familiar manner. Like 君 kimi, this can also be used as an honorific (pronounced as きょう kyou), in which case it's equivalent to "lord/lady" or "sir/dame".
nanjiなんじ 汝, less commonly also 爾 you, often translated as "thou" all Spelled as なむち namuchi in the most ancient texts and later as なんち nanchi or なんぢ nanji. Frequently seen in the Persona series in the sentence "我は汝・・・汝は我・・・" (Ware wa nanji. nanji wa ware.), usually translated as "I am thou. Thou art I."
onushiおぬし 御主, お主 you all Used by elders and samurai to talk to people of equal or lower rank. Literally means "master".
sonataそなた 其方 (rarely used) you all Originally a mesial deictic pronoun meaning how to say i m home in japanese side; that way; that direction"; used as a lightly respectful second person pronoun in previous eras, but now used when speaking to an inferior in a pompous and old-fashioned tone.
sochiそち 其方 (rarely used) you all Similar to そなた sonata. Literally means "that way". (Sochira and kochira, sometimes shortened to sotchi and kotchi, are still sometimes used to mean roughly "you" and "I, we", e.g. kochira koso in response to thanks or an apology means literally "this side is the one" but idiomatically "no, I (or we) thank/apologize to you"; especially common on the telephone, analogous to phrases like "on this end" and "on your end" in English.)

Suffixes[edit]

Suffixes are added to pronouns to make them plural.

RomajiHiraganaKanjiLevel of speech Notes
tachiたち informal; examples:
  • 私達, watashi-tachi,
  • あなた達, anata-tachi
  • 君達, kimi-tachi
Also can be attached to names to indicate that person and the group they are with (Ryuichi-tachi = "Ryuichi and friends").
kata,
gata
かた,
がた
formal (ex. あなた方, anata-gata) More polite than 達 tachi. gata is the rendaku form.
domoども humble (ex. 私ども, watakushi-domo) Casts some aspersion on the mentioned group, so it can be rude. domo is the rendaku form.
rainformal (ex. 彼ら, karera. 俺ら, ore-ra. 奴ら, yatsu-ra. あいつら, aitsu-ra) Used with informal pronouns. Frequently used with hostile words. Sometimes used for light humble as domo (ex. 私ら, watashi-ra)

Demonstrative and interrogative pronouns[edit]

Demonstrative words, whether functioning as pronouns, adjectives or adverbs, fall into four groups. Words beginning with ko- indicate something close to the speaker (so-called proximal demonstratives). Those beginning with so- indicate separation from the speaker or closeness to the listener (medial), while those beginning with a- indicate greater distance (distal). Interrogative words, used in questions, begin with do-.[3]

Demonstratives are normally written in hiragana.

RomajiHiraganaKanjiMeaning
koreこれ 此れ this thing / these things (near speaker)
soreそれ 其れ that thing / those things (near listener)
areあれ 彼れ that thing / those things (distant from both speaker and listener)
doreどれ 何れ which thing(s)?
kochira or kotchiこちら / こっち 此方 this / here (near speaker)
sochira or sotchiそちら / そっち 其方 that / there (near listener)
achira or atchiあちら / あっち 彼方 that / there (distant from both speaker and listener)
dochira or dotchiどちら / どっち 何方 what / where

Reflexive[edit]

Japanese has only one word corresponding to reflexive pronouns such as myself, yourself, or themselves in English. The word 自分 (jibun) means "one's self" and may be used for human beings or some animals. It is not used for cold-blooded animals or inanimate objects.[3][better source needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Noguchi, Tohru (1997). "Two types of pronouns and variable binding". Language. 73 (4): 770–797. doi:10.1353/lan.1997.0021. S2CID 143722779.
  2. ^Kanaya, Takehiro (2002). 日本語に主語はいらない Nihongo ni shugo wa iranai [In Japanese subjects are not needed]. Kodansha.
  3. ^ abcdefAkiyama, Nobuo; Akiyama, Carol (2002). Japanese Grammar. Barron's Educational. ISBN .
  4. ^Ishiyama, Osamu (2008). Diachronic Perspectives on Personal Pronouns in Japanese (Ph.D.). State University of New York at Buffalo.
  5. ^Maynard, Senko K: "An Introduction to Japanese Grammar and Communication Strategies", page 45. The Japan Times, 4th edition, 1993. ISBN 4-7890-0542-9
  6. ^"The many ways to say "I" in Japanese © m-louis .® / Flickr

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Kuidaore (食い倒れ), or going bankrupt from overeating, seems like a very real possibility in Japan © Kentaro Ohno / Flickr

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4 Replies to “How to say i m home in japanese”

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